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Outlawe Research Journal - Page 10

Another aspect of the Invasion of Ireland from Bristol gives us a Berkeley connection.

Were the Utlage's men in bristol working for Eadnoth?:

Eadnoth the Constable - (died 1068)[1] also known as Eadnoth the Staller, was an Anglo-Saxon landowner and steward to Edward the Confessor and Harold II, mentioned in Domesday Book as having 30 holdings in Devon, Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire before the Norman conquest.[2] He may also have been the same person as Eadnoth of Ugford, also known as Alnoth.[3] Eadnoth was killed at Bleadon in 1068, leading a force against the two sons of Harold II, who had invaded Somerset. His son Harding became sheriff reeve of Bristol and one of his grandsons was Robert Fitzharding who became lord of Berkeley.

Harding of Bristol - (born circa 1048, died circa 1125) was sheriff reeve of Bristol, with responsibility for managing a manorial estate and perhaps similar duties to those of a magistrate.[1][2] He was the son of Eadnoth the Constable, an Anglo-Saxon thane who served as steward to Edward the Confessor and Harold II.[3] He was the father of Robert Fitzharding who became lord of Berkeley, Gloucestershire

Robert Fitzharding - (c. 1095–1170) was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman from Bristol who was granted the feudal barony of Berkeley in Gloucestershire. He rebuilt Berkeley Castle, and founded the Berkeley family which still occupies it today.[1] He was a wealthy Bristol merchant and a financier of Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Aquitaine, who was the rival of King Stephen (1135–54) during the period known as The Anarchy and who subsequently became King Henry II (1154–89). Fitzharding founded St. Augustine's Abbey, which after the Reformation became Bristol Cathedral.[2] Many members of the Berkeley family were buried within it, and some of their effigies survive there. As J. Horace Round asserted he was one of the very few Anglo-Saxon noblemen who managed to retain their noble status in Norman England and successfully integrate with the Norman nobility, if not the only one
In 1140, Fitzharding founded St Augustine's Abbey as a Victorine Augustinian monastery. The chosen site was in Billeswick, just across the River Frome from Bristol Castle.
According to the 13th century Norman verse The Song of Dermot and the Earl, Fitzharding acted as an intermediary between Dermot MacMurrough, the exiled King of Leinster, and Henry II in Dermot's attempts to raise Norman support for his planned recapture of Leinster. The song tells that Dermot was a guest in Fitzharding's house in Bristol

Bristol Cathedral - The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity is the Church of England cathedral in the city of Bristol, England, and is commonly known as Bristol Cathedral. Founded in 1140, it became the seat of the bishop and cathedral of the new Diocese of Bristol in 1542

Bristol Cathedral was founded as St Augustine's Abbey in 1140 by Robert Fitzharding, a wealthy local landowner and royal official. As the name suggests, the monastic precinct housed Augustinian canons. The original abbey church, of which only fragments remain, was constructed between 1140 and 1148 in the Romanesque style, known in England as Norman. Further stone buildings were erected on the site between 1148 and 1164

Maurice de Berkeley - Sir Maurice de Berkeley "the Resolute" (1218 - 4 April 1281), 8th (feudal) Baron de Berkeley, was an English soldier and rebel, residing at Berkeley Castle in the English county of Gloucestershire.

Maurice was born in 1218 to Thomas de Berkeley and Joan de Somery. He married Isabel de Croun FitzRoy, the daughter of Richard FitzRoy, Baron of Chilham (an illegitimate son of King John of England) and Rose de Douvres, sometime before 12 July 1247.

Berkeley fought in the French Wars and was invested as a knight before 1242. He inherited the title of Baron de Berkeley in 1243 and, on 14 December 1243, he had livery of his father's lands. He fought in the war in North Wales and in 1264 he joined the Barons against King Henry III. Berkeley died on 4 April 1281 and was buried in St Augustine's Abbey in Bristol.

Peerage - Thomas de Berkeley

Thomas de Berkeley was born circa 1170.1 He was the son of Maurice FitzRobert FitzHarding de Berkeley and Alice de Berkeley.1 He married Joan de Somery, daughter of Sir Ralph de Somery and Margaret Marshal, circa 1217.1 He died on 29 November 1243.2 He was buried at St. Augustine's, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.2
      Thomas de Berkeley also went by the nick-name of Thomas 'the Observer'.1 In 1222 he obtained livery of the Castle of Berkeley.1 He gained the title of Lord de Berkeley [feudal baron] in 1222.1

Child of Thomas de Berkeley and Joan de Somery


Thomas The Observer Or Temporiser De Berkeley (1170-1243) - born 1170 Of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England
died 29 Nov 1243 Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England
buried St Augustine Aby, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England

father: Maurice Fitz Harding "The Make Peace"
born 1120 Bristol, Gloucester, England
died after 16 Jan 1189/90 Bristol, Gloucester, England

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Berkeley Castle -  (historically sometimes spelt Berkley Castle) is a castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, UK (grid reference ST685989). The castle's origins date back to the 11th century. The castle has remained within the Berkeley family since they reconstructed it in the 12th century, except for a period of royal ownership by the Tudors. It is traditionally believed to be the scene of the murder of King Edward II in 1327

The first castle at Berkeley was a motte-and-bailey, built around 1067 by William FitzOsbern shortly after the Conquest.[4] This was subsequently held by three generations of the first Berkeley family, all called Roger de Berkeley, and rebuilt by them in the first half of the 12th century.[5] The last Roger de Berkeley was dispossessed in 1152 for withholding his allegiance from the House of Plantagenet during the conflict of The Anarchy, and the Lordship of Berkeley was then granted to Robert Fitzharding, a wealthy burgess of Bristol and supporter of the Plantagenets. He was the founder of the Berkeley family which still holds the castle.[4][6][7][8]

In 1153–54, Fitzharding received a royal charter from King Henry II giving him permission to rebuild the castle,[8] with the aim of defending the Bristol - Gloucester Road, the Severn estuary, and the Welsh border.

 Fitzharding built the circular shell keep during 1153–56, probably on the site of the former motte. The building of the curtain wall followed, probably during 1160–90 by Robert and then by his son Maurice.[4][8]

Much of the rest of the castle is 14th century and was built for Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley: Thorpe's Tower, to the north of the keep, the inner gatehouse to its southwest, and other buildings of the inner bailey

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Original Viking invader of Ireland:

Turgesius - died 845) (also called Turgeis, Tuirgeis, Turges, and Thorgest) was a Viking chief active in Ireland who is said to have conquered Dublin. It is not at all clear whether the names in the Irish annals represent the Old Norse Thurgestr or Thorgísl.[1][2] John O'Donovan and Charles Haliday independently identified him with Ragnar Loðbrók, but the identification is not generally accep

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Ireland under the Normans _Volume I


Dermot, once powerful King of Leinster, on the first day of August 1166, with some few followers, stole away, a fugitive from his native land. After a fair passage he landed at Bristol, even then an important port and commercial centre, and one well known to the Norse merchants of Dublin, Wexford, and Waterford. He and all his company were entertained by Robert Fitz Harding at his house near the monastery of St. Augustine, just outside Bristol.

He was an old man in 1166, having been born in 1085. He was reeve of Bristol and had  purchased land in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, viz. the manor of Bedminster,  including the vill of Redcliff on the other side of 
the river, and the vill of Billeswick to the southwest, where he had founded an abbey for Augustinian canons. He had supported Earl Robert of Gloucester and Matilda in the struggle with Stephen, and had won the favour of Matilda's son, who rewarded him with the fief of Berkeley

It was probably through the trading relations that had subsisted for some time between the Ostmen of Dublin and the merchants of Bristol that Dermot had become acquainted with the reeve of the latter town, and was able to count on his hospitality and friendship. These trading relations afterwards supplied a motive for Henry's effort to colonize the depleted city of Dublin with his men of Bristol, and in this connexion it is worth noting that among the earliest citizens of the Anglo-Norman town was ' John son of Jordan son of Harding V possibly a nephew of Dermot's host.


It certainly looks as if Dermot knew of Henry's meditated expedition  into Ireland, and had perhaps even heard of 
Adrian's Bull. At any rate, it is very probable  that Fitz Harding knew all about Henry's  designs. He was his intimate and trusted  friend. When Henry was nine years old,  Geoffrey of Anjou had sent him to Bristol to his uncle, Earl Robert of Gloucester, and he  lived in Bristol Castle for four years. Then  was formed his friendship with Robert Fitz Harding, which remained unbroken for life.  

When Henry came to England again in 1152  he was assisted by Fitz Harding, who was  rewarded, as we have seen, with the fief of  Berkeley, and no doubt every time Henry went  into Wales he saw Fitz Harding on the way. 
Fitz Harding, Henry's trusted and favoured vassal, must have known of Henry's ambitious views with regard to Ireland, and it was prob- ably on Fitz Harding's advice that Dermot took  the unprecedented course of appealing to the 
Angevin king.

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Much later in Virginia:

William Berkeley (governor) - 1605 – 9 July 1677) was a colonial governor of Virginia, and one of the Lords Proprietors of the Colony of Carolina; he was appointed to these posts by King Charles I of England, of whom he was a favourite.

Outlawe's in Portugal or Spain? Did they go on the 2nd crusade in 1247?  

Some English stayed in Lisbon Portugal - Tortosa Spain

English crusaders settled in 12th century Spain, study finds

A recent article in the Journal of Medieval History has found records indicating that a group of crusaders from England and Wales took part in the siege and conquest of the Spanish city of Tortosa in 1148, and that some of them decided to stay and live in the area.

In his article "Angli cum multis aliis alienigenis: crusade settlers in Tortosa," Antoni Virgili on the University of Barcelona traces the records of about twenty individuals who lived in and around Tortosa during the second half of the twelfth century. He identifies these people as being from England and Wales, including some people who became wealthy and important members of the local oligarchy.

In the spring of 1147 Anglo-Norman and Flemish crusaders set out from Dartmouth in the direction of the Holy Land to take part in the Second Crusade. On their way they participated in the siege of Lisbon (October 1147) and the campaign against Tortosa which finished with the surrender of the city on the last day of 1148.

After the city fell, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, began encouraging people to settle in his newly-conquered territories, offering them free land. Along with Catalans and Aragonese, this offer attracted Italian, French and other European settlers.

Virgili focuses on twenty of these individuals who he believes came from England or Wales, and provides biographical information about them. They include Guilabertus Anglicus, who is mentioned in 56 documents dating from between 1151 and 1180. He was given several homes in Tortosa by Count Ramon and over the years built up his landed property. His will and other documents showed that he supported the Templars and several local religious groups.

The documents researched by Virgili show that these English settlers were active in acquiring and selling property in and around Tortosa. In 1165, Rotbertus Otonensis and his wife Guia sold to the Templar commandery at Tortosa an orchard at Palomera for 25 gold morabetins lupins. In that same year, Osbertus Anglicus paid 55 gold morabetins to purchase an orchard in Vilanova held by a Jewish man named Haio Azus.

The article is available in Volume 35, Number 3 of the Journal of Medieval History, which can be accessed from this website.

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1120 - White Ship Disaster - Those drowned included William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England - Source of the Anarchy 1135-1154
1125 - The St. Mary Magdalene Leper Chapel, Cambridge - oldest surviving building in Cambridge
1128 - Templar founder Hugh de Payens visits Normandy and England to raise troops for the Holy land.
1129 - Robert Fitzroy, Earl of Gloucester - illegitimate son of Henry I, grandson of William the Conqueror, founded the Priory of St James Bristol in 1129

1130 - The Round Church of Cambridge was built in about 1130 and was originally a wayfarers' chapel
1133 - PAYNE PEVEREL dies on Crusade in Jerusalem - There is some doubt about the date of Pagan Peverel's death
1135-1154 - Henry I dies without male heir - names daughter Matilda - Beginning of the Anarchy 1135-1154
1136 - Almaric St. Norbert's Premonstratensian apostolate ,  sets out in 1136 for the Holy Land 
1137 - Almaric founded the Premonstratensian Abbey of St. Abacuc in Jerusalem

1140 - Jordan de Briset and his wife founded the hospital and priory of St John of Jerusalem and the nunnery of St Mary. at Clerkenwell 

1142 - The first mention of the Order of Saint Lazarus in surviving sources dates to 1142.

1147 - Margam Abbey was founded in 1147 by Robert Consul (died 1147), Earl of Gloucester, as a Cistercian house. The foundation gift consisted of lands between the rivers Afan and Kenfig. The abbey later received the manor of Resolven, and many other lands, making it the richest religious house in Wales. - Grant By William De Bonville to Margam Abbey of land held by the Templars in the time of his father - Robert Consul = Robert Fitz Roy - illegitimate son ot Henry I and Nesta (Wales)  - William Fitz Robert  - Son of Robert Consul  - Nest ferch Rhys - (died after 1136) was a Welsh princess of Deheubarth who was renowned for her beauty - After her father's death in 1093, Deheubarth was conquered by the Normans and King Henry I of England appointed himself her protector. Nest is thought to have borne him a son, Henry FitzRoy (1103-1158). -Around 1095 King Henry decided to marry Nest to one of his followers, Gerald de Windsor, whom he appointed Constable of Pembroke. Consequently, Nest is the maternal progenitor of the FitzGerald dynasty -  Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester

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1147-49 - Second Crusade - Roger de Mowbray participated in the Second Crusade in 1147  - William Peverel confirmed his grants and then went off to Jerusalem where he died without heir.

1147 - On May 19, 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, and Scottish crusaders, and some from Cologne,[4] who collectively considered themselves "Franks".[5] No prince or king led this part of the crusade, England at the time being in the midst of The Anarchy. The fleet was commanded by "Hervey" Henry Glanville, Constable of Suffolk.[6][7] Other crusader captains included Arnold III of Aerschot, Christian of Ghistelles, "the men of Kent under" Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.[8] - Fall of Lisbon - The siege began on July 1. The Christians soon captured the surrounding territories and besieged the walls of Lisbon itself. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender (October 21), because the Crusaders' siege tower reached their wall (thus causing a one day standstill) and because of hunger within the city, which was sheltering populations displaced from Santarém as well as "the leading citizens of Sintra, Almada, and Palmela."[11] - Some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land.[6] Most of the crusaders however settled in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings was elected bishop - Frank Leslie's popular monthly 

1147/50 - The hospital of Burton Lazars was founded by Roger de Mowbray, who granted to the lepers of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem 2 carucates of land at Burton - The Knights Templar, had the policy for knights contracting leprosy to join the Order of Saint Lazarus with the Templars paying a pension for each affected knight’s admission. 

1150 The Order of Saint Lazarus expands to Europe
- Earliest use in literature of "Outlaw" as a proper last name: Renaus de Montauban - Ullage l'englois. Outlaw the Englishman, "late 12th century"

1150~1169 - Bromholm Priory - House of Glanville - Charter of  Bartholomew de Glanville To Bromholme Priory - Walteri Utlage - And two thirds of the tithes of MY MEN: that is,  my uncle by my mother,  Roger de Bertuna: And  Geoffrey, priest of Honinges: and Turstan despensatoris: Warini de Torp, Ricardi Hurel, Walteri Utlage: and Roberti de Buskevill: And the tenth of the whole Ricardi filii Ketel.  

Siege of Lisbon - from July 1 to October 25, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade—it was "the only success of the universal operation undertaken by the pilgrim army,"

The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León and Castile to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on June 16, 1147. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal.

The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to the crusaders the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The siege began on July 1. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender on October 24, primarily because of hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Lisbon eventually became capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.
On May 19, 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, and Scottish crusaders, and some from Cologne,[6] who collectively considered themselves "Franks".[7] No prince or king led this part of the crusade, England at the time being in the midst of The Anarchy. The fleet was commanded by Henry Glanville, Constable of Suffolk.[8][9] Other crusader captains included Arnold III of Aerschot, Christian of Ghistelles, Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle
Some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land.[8] However, most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, thus boosting the number of Christian supporters in Iberia. Gilbert of Hastings was elected bishop. This is seen[by whom?] as the beginning of the historic relationship between England and Portugal which would later form the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. In spite of the contractual nature of the city's surrender, a legend arose that the brave Portuguese warrior and nobleman, Martim Moniz, sacrificed himself in order to keep the city doors open to the conquering Christian armies

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Participation in the Iberian Reconquista
c.1018 - c.1248
By Lucas Villegas-Aristizábal BA (Hons), MA pdf

Chapter IV, addresses the large contribution of the Anglo-Normans as part of the Second Crusade and their motivations and the impact of their arrival on the Iberian realms
Harvey of Glanville was the leader of the East Anglian contingent in the Lisbon expedition
. From the lack of documentary sources about his life and his relationship with the other Glanvilles in East Anglia, we might assume that whilst he was perhaps important and influential among the small landowners of his region he was not a powerful lord who could pay a full retinue of armoured knights to go with him to Iberia. However, there are a few documents which predate his departure for Spain. Two of these show him as a witness to Stephen's charters, which suggest that at least for a time he was a loyal subject to the king in the years before the crusade.427 Perhaps his leadership, just as it is implied in De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, was achieved as part of a process of election based perhaps on his personal prestige among his peers.
Details of other Englishmen in the Iberian campaigns of the Second Crusade have also survived in documents relating to the granting of lands  made after the conquest of Tortosa
.432 The most notable of them, because of
the abundance of documentary sources about them, are ‘Gilbert’, ‘Osbert’, and ‘Jordan’.’433 Unfortunately because of the cryptic form of the names of these Englishmen who appear mostly with the surname of Anglici or Angles, it is hard to identify exactly their place of origin in England. However, there are two groups of English in Tortosa whose surnames Savigne and Caron seem to link them directly with East Anglia, which implies that some other participants were also from this area.434 It is likely that those involved on the Lisbon campaign and the Tortosa campaign were members of the same expedition, since there is no mention of the formation of a crusading expedition in England except for those who went to Lisbon.

Lisbon Cathedral - In the year 1147, the city was reconquered by an army composed of Portuguese soldiers led by King Afonso Henriques and North European crusaders taking part on the Second Crusade (see Siege of Lisbon). An English crusader named Gilbert of Hastings was placed as bishop, and a new cathedral was built on the site of the main mosque of Lisbon

Gilbert of Hastings - died 1166) was an English monk in the Christian army of the Second Crusade that fought in the siege of Lisbon. After the victory, he was chosen to be Bishop of Lisbon

Robert d'Aguiló - (c. 1100 – c. 1159), also known as Robert Bordet, was a Norman adventurer who moved from Normandy to Catalonia in the early 12th century. He was a native of Cullei (modern Rabodanges in Orne, France), as reported by Orderic Vitalis, and his name d'Aguiló is a catalanized form of "d'Aculley" or "de Culley" that he adopted after marrying the daughter of a Catalan noble.

Tortosa - After more than 400 years of Muslim rule, the city was conquered by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1148, as part of the Second Crusade. Because of the crusading appeal made by Pope Eugene III and his representative Nicholas Brakespear (the future Pope Hadrian IV), the siege received the aid of crusaders from multiple nationalities (Genovese, Anglo-Normans, Normans, Southern-French, Germans, Flemish and Dutch), who were on their way to the Holy Land. The siege of Tortosa was narrated by the Genovese chronicler and diplomat Caffaro.

After its conquest, the city and its territory were divided among the victors, with multiple lands being granted to foreign crusaders and to the military and religious orders

Knights Templar - Who is talking about Knights Templar on FLICKR


Knights Templar - this is one of the few intact columns in the cloister at the cathedral of Tortosa. It is supposed to depict the Last Supper and a group of Knights Templar. One of the knights carries a shield with the Templar cross.....

Central Convent of Hospitallers and Templars History, Organization, ... - Jochen Burgtorf

Here we have an experts (J Horace Round) opinion on the adoption of surnames (mid-12th century 1150-1200) and the pre-conquest English families (Anglo-Saxon-Danes) - adoption of Christian first names (Natives adopted Christian first names soon after the conquest, within 50 to 100 years). 

Such that since records begin one hundred years after the conquest ~1150 , native youths already have Christian first names - while even their parents rarely may have Saxon/Danish First Names, I think this applies to the early records at Canterbury Kent, where we have the daughter Hildith retains a Saxon name while the sons of "Hagenild widow of Utlag?" have Christian names. 

It is also possible the "Utlag" had been originally used as a father's first name  and taken up as a family name after the conquest. 

The upper classes and earlier families were first adopters of surnames like Walter Utlage and John son of Ralph Utlage, Robert and Alan Utlage . We have them in Norfolk, Dublin, Bristol , Kent and Dublin. Are they related? Possibly but not necessarily.    

"The English of the upper and middle classes hastened to bestow upon their children the Christian names of their conquerors"

"If the surname is stereotyped at this point, it will become Godwin or Goodwin (the fathers first name), and the family may claim " Saxon origin" : if it is not stereotyped till the next generation, it may become Richards, and the thought of ' Saxon origin ' will not even occur to those who bear that name. And yet the family is the same. "

1166~1169 - Bromholm Priory - House of Glanville - Charter of  Bartholomew de Glanville To Bromholme Priory - Walteri Utlage
- Torsten utlag - Reginaldus utlag - Dublin Roll of Names
- Confirmation by the Prior of St. James's, Bristol, to  John, son of Ralph Utlage, of land in Lewin's Mead
1198 - Philip , Henry , Richard , William , Jordan, sons of Vtlag’ - Kent Pipe Rolls - John  1198
1199 - IBER FEODORUM - Alanus Utlage, iij. quarteria in Hindringham et Homeresfeld - Honour of Wormegeye - Honor of Wormegay
1199 - IBER FEODORUM - Norfolk - Robert Utlag - Roger de Nuiers for Robert Utlag 

1200~1212 - De Helia Vtlagh (of Elham)  - Rents due  about Mildelton - (Milton Kent)  (Elham Canterbury, Kent)
- Haghenild Vtlaghe - lands of Newton and Newington - Heirs: Hildith ,  Simon, Adam, Henry and Roger son of Thomas - ( Canterbury, Kent )

J. Horace Round - (John) Horace Round (1854–1928) was a historian and genealogist of the English medieval period. He translated the Domesday Book for Essex into contemporary English. As an expert in the history of the British peerage he was appointed Honorary Historical Adviser to the Crown.
His translation and discussion of the Essex Domesday (VCH Essex, vol. 1) is widely regarded as a masterpiece, and is of national significance; this contrasts with his books, where he often indulged in castigating his contemporaries. He pursued disputes with other academics vigorously, and on more than one occasion, the level of acrimony was sufficiently high that the editor was forced to close correspondence on the subject

Internet Archive Search creator Round, John Horace, 1854-1928

Peerage and pedigree; studies in peerage law and family history Round, John Horace, 1854-1928


Apart from those families which claim to have ' come in with the Conqueror ', or at least to be of Norman descent, there are no inconsiderable number who, in one way or another, claim to be older than the Conquest, or, as it is often expressed, " of Saxon origin. " In a few cases a continuous pedigree beginning before the Conquest is definitely put forward ; in others the possession of the family estate is traced, or said to be traced, to the same early period : in some it is more vaguely claimed that a family was established in a certain county long before the Conquest, but in most, perhaps, there is the vague claim to ' Saxon ' " descent " or " origin. " 

There is pecular need for 'clear thinking' in this department of genealogy, for of these claims many rest on careless or confused thought. It is obvious that their real object is to assert, broadly speaking, that a family was already of importance before the Norman Conquest. But this, of course, is by no means implied in a claim to ' Saxon descent.' The people of this country, after the Norman Conquest, were officially divided into ' French ' and ' English ' {Franci et Angli), of whom the former represented the conquering invaders, Norman for the most part, and the latter the conquered English. These — whom some speak of as ' Saxons ' or ' Anglo- Saxons ' — formed the bulk of the population ^ and 
included naturally the immense majority of the lower orders. There was, therefore, no inducement to assert " Saxon descent" as a distinction, and, 

' The old Scandinavian element in the east and northeast, and the border population towards the ' Celtic ' fringe were by this time counted as ' English. ' 

as a matter of fact, the English of the upper and middle classes hastened to bestow upon their children the Christian names of their conquerors,  1 leaving the old native names to those below them, among whom they lingered on for a good while longer. 

It will thus be seen that " Saxon origin " is, in itself, no distinction, being probably that of the bulk of our people. But if an actual pedigree can be carried back beyond the gulf of the Conquest, or if the possession of a family estate can be traced to the same remote period, or even if an existing family is so much as mentioned by name before Harold fell, then we should indeed have a most exceptional distinction, and one of which its possessors might well claim to be proud. For, from the historical standpoint, or even from the sociological, it would be no mean achievement for a family to maintain its position, without ruin or extinction, through all the revolutions and vicissitudes of English medieval history since the days when our native kings sat upon their fathers' throne. 

When we come to set together our self-styled Saxon houses, the first point, perhaps, to strike us is that, on their own showing, their known history only begins at some time in the 12th century, the century after that which saw the Norman Conquest. Their ' Saxon ' origin is a sheer guess : there is absolutely nothing to prove or even to suggest it. The idea seems to have originated in more ways than one. Indeed we can clearly distinguish two groups of families which laid claim to the distinction on wholly different grounds. The one includes several of our oldest — our very oldest — families, whose proved tenure of their lands begins at so remote a date that they find it difficult to conceive a time when they did not hold them. Ignoring the cataclysm of the Norman Conquest, they assume that their own ancestors passed unscathed through its terrors and retained their hereditary estates


The relatively late origin of surnames disposes also at once of the pretensions of what I have termed the other ' group ' of families conspicuous among the claimants to a pre-Conquest descent. They are those whose surnames are formed from certain Christian names, which lingered on (as I explained above) for some time after the Conquest, long enough in some cases to become the origin of surnames.
Let us open at a venture ' The Domesday of St. Paul's, ' * with its lists of peasants and their holdings in 1222. We soon discover that, then as now, fashion was spreading downward. Even peasants were beginning to discard the names of their English forefathers and to bestow upon their 
children those which had come from abroad with the Normans.
On the right hand page (p, 83) we meet with the three sons of a man bearing the ancient name of ^thelward [Ailwardus) — a name which had been also borne by " Fabius Quaestor Patricius ^Ethelwerdus," as he styled himself, historian and ealdorman, born of the royal line. They were but humble folk, these brothers, holding 20 acres in bond service apiece ; and yet they had received the Norman names of Walter, Ralf, and Geoffrey. On the opposite page we find an even humbler bondsman who holds but five acres, " Ricardus Godwini. " Let us consider this name. The father has been christened Godwine, which, at the eve of the Conquest, was one of the commonest of English names, ^ but the son receives the Norman name of Richard. The result is that he is known as " Richard (son of) Godwine. " If the surname is stereotyped at this point, it will become Godwin or Goodwin, and the family may claim " Saxon origin" : if it is not stereotyped till the next generation, it may become Richards, and the thought of ' Saxon origin ' will not even occur to those who bear that name. And yet the family is the same. 

Cross and bed found in Anglo-Saxon grave shed new light on 'dark ages'

Cross and bed found in Anglo-Saxon grave shed new light on 'dark ages'Archaeologists in Cambridge thrilled to discover grave with body of young woman on a bed with an ornate gold cross

archaeologists in Cambridgeshire have uncovered a bed on which the body of a young Anglo-Saxon woman has lain for more than 1,300 years, a regal gold and garnet cross on her breast.

Three more graves, of two younger women and an older person whose sex has not yet been identified, were found nearby.

Forensic work on the first woman's bones suggests she was about 16, with no obvious explanation for her early death. Although she was almost certainly a Christian, buried with the beautiful cross stitched into place on her gown, she was buried according to ancient pagan tradition with some treasured possessions including an iron knife and a chatelaine, a chain hanging from her belt, and some glass beads which were probably originally in a purse that has rotted away.

The field where she lay, now being developed for housing at the edge of the village of Trumpington on the outskirts of Cambridge, hid a previously unknown Anglo-Saxon settlement. It may have been a wealthy monastic settlement – more of it probably lies under the neighbouring farm and farmyard – although there are no records of any church earlier than the 12th century village church which overlooks the site

Sam Lucy, an Anglo-Saxon expert from Newnham College Cambridge, who helped excavate the site, said the small loops on the arms of the Trumpington cross, worn shiny by rubbing against the fabric, showed the woman probably wore the cross during her short life, at a time when the Anglo-Saxon aristocrats were gradually converting to the powerful new religion.

Anglo-Saxon Bed Burials « Bones Don't Lie

The skeleton of a 7th-century teenager was found buried in an ornamental bed along with a gold-and-garnet cross, an iron knife and a purse full of glass beads. Only about a dozen of these bed burials have been recovered, so they are not well understood. The bed was identified by the presence of a dark organic square of soil around the body and iron brackets at the corners. The grave, dated between 650 and 680 CE, and the presence of the cross shows that it was likely an early converter. The other grave goods show a clear association with pagan rituals and funerary rites. The individual was aged around 16 years, suggesting an early death. There is no obvious cause of death at the moment. Three nearby graves contained more traditional pagan burials, with no signs of Christianity.

Anglo-Saxon burial practices are fairly variable in their traits. They include both cremation and inhumation cemeteries, generally with copious grave goods. However, with the adoption of Christianity there was a transition in practices from pagan that meant increased religious grave goods but decreased goods in general. Another bed burial was recovered from Edix Hill, located near the most recent find. This burial includes the remains of a female aged 17-25 years, who was suffering from leprosy. She was found with a high number of grave goods, the wealthiest for the cemetery. Including a necklace, silver rings, a key, two knives, a bucket, a weaving batten, a comb and a box, in which were a spindlewhorl, a copper-alloy sheet, a fossil sea urchin, a sheep astragalus, glass, a metal rod and iron fragments. A bed burial excavated in Yorkshire tells us more about the construction of the bed itself: “rectangular, approximately 1.8m by 0.80m by 0.30m with an inclined headboard attached by two stays of twisted iron on either side. Each side of the bed was made up of two horizontal planks, held together by a number of decorative iron cleats around the outside… complex ironwork decoration is also apparent at the head and at the foot of the bed. The top of each headboard stay has been attached to or flattened out to make a rectangular mount which grips the top edge of the headboard. At the foot end one similar mount survived. This example is slightly concave, suggesting that the top edge of the footboard was scalloped” (Sherlock and Simmons 2008). Sadly, no human remains were recovered so we do not know whether females continue to be honored in these types of burials.
The best known example of the pectoral cross was that found in the coffin of St Cuthbert now in Durham Cathedral… That this is a bed burial is remarkable in itself – the fifteenth ever uncovered in the UK, and only the fourth in the last twenty years – add to that a beautifully made Christian cross and you have a truly astonishing discovery,” said Alison Dickens, who led the excavation. More detailed investigation of the bodies and beds from the over dozen bed burials found in this period is currently taking place. By doing a detailed comparison of all evidence within the regional context, archaeologists are going to be able to create more nuanced interpretations of what this practice means.

The twentieth century biographical dictionary of notable Americans ..

HAMILTON, Joseph, jurist, was born at Carr's Creek, Va., in 1763; son of Robert Hamilton, who emigrated from Scotland and settled at Carr's Creek, Rockbridge county, Va. Joseph was graduated at Liberty Hall and was admitted to the bar of Virginia in 1784. He removed to Kentucky the same year and was associated in practice with David Campbell, Archibald Roaue, and Joseph Anderson. He was married to a daughter of Alexander Outlaw of Jefferson county, Tenn., one of the commissioners of the state of Franklin to negotiate with the Cherokee Indians. 

At the first session of the court of pleas and quarter, sessions for Knox county, held at Knoxville. July 16, 1792, he was admitted to practice in the new territory south of the Ohio, the other lawyers admitted being Luke Boxvyer, Alexander Outlaw, Archibald Roane, Hopkins Lacy, John Rhea and James Reese. He was made judge of the circuit court and attained high rank as a jurist. 

The Gammons of Jouesboro and of Knoxville, the Blairs of North Carolina and the Van Dykes of Athens and Chattanooga, Tenn., are among his descendants. He was one of the incorporators of Blouut college, Sept. 16, 1794. The date of his death did not appear on any recur. 1 accessible to the writer of this sketch. 

1258-9 - Mass starvation Volcano caused mass deaths in London’s East End

Volcano caused mass deaths in London’s East End, says museum

Volcano caused mass deaths in London’s East End, says museum
Mike Brooke Monday, August 6, 2012

Archeologists who discovered thousands of skeletons in medieval mass graves in London’s East End believe many were the victims of a 13th Century volcanic eruption on the other side of the world
The skeletons were uncovered next to Spitalfields Market when the new Spital Square development was started 20 years ago

Some 10,500 skeletons dating from the 12th to 16th centuries were uncovered by the archaeologists, including mass burial pits which had scientists baffled because the radiocarbon dating didn’t match known events in medieval England like the Black Death or Great Famine. 

Osteologist Don Walker set about solving the mystery and found documents mentioning “heavy rains,” crop failure and “many thousand persons perished”.

There was a colossal volcano in 1258 that was even bigger than Krakatau, he discovered. A number of ‘candidates’ put forward include the East Indies and what is now Mexico and Ecuador in the Americas which were undiscovered in the 13th century. 

Underwater Archaeologists Dig Deep For Iconic Privateer Captain Henry Morgan - ST. CROIX, US Virgin Islands, July 26, 2012

Underwater Archaeologists Dig Deep For Iconic Privateer Captain Henry Morgan's Lost Fleet In The Caribbean
Team Recovers Sword, Chests and Wooden Barrels from 17th Century Shipwreck off the Coast of Panama Where Morgan Lost Five Ships in 1671

For the third year in a row, with the help of the Captain Morgan brand, a team of leading U.S. archaeologists returned to the mouth of the Chagres River in Panama in search of real-life buccaneer Captain Henry Morgan 's lost fleet

Iron Age road link to Iceni tribe

A suspected Iron Age road, made of timber and preserved in peat for 2,000 years, has been uncovered by archaeologists in East Anglia.

The site, excavated in June, may have been part of a route across the River Waveney and surrounding wetland at Geldeston in Norfolk, say experts.Causeways were first found in the area in 2006, during flood defence work at the nearby Suffolk town of Beccles. It is thought the road is pre-Roman, built by the local Iceni tribe.

Exact dating has yet to be carried out but tree-ring evidence suggests a date of 75BC.

BBC News - Oxford Viking massacre revealed by skeleton find

Evidence of a brutal massacre of Vikings in Oxford 1100 years ago has been uncovered by archaeologists.

At least 35 skeletons, all males aged 16 to 25 were discovered in 2008 at St John's College, Oxford

Archaeologists analysing the find believe it dates from 1002 AD when King Ethelred the Unready ordered a massacre of all Danes (Vikings) in England.
It is possible that the Oxford skeletons were victims of an event called the St Brice's Day Massacre, recorded in a number of historical sources.

In AD1002, the Saxon king Ethelred the Unready recorded in a charter that he ordered "a most just extermination" of all the Danes in England.

Viking mass grave linked to elite killers of the medieval world

A mass grave found in Dorset could belong to a crew of Viking mercenaries who terrorised Europe in the 11th century – according to a new documentary on National Geographic which pieces together the story behind the burial


Their burial pit, at Ridgeway Hill, Dorset, was found in 2009 while archaeologists were working in the area ahead of the construction of a new road. In it, researchers made the gruesome discovery of the decapitated bodies of 54 young men. All had been dumped in the shallow grave, and their heads had been piled up on the far side.
While historians will probably never agree conclusively about who the men were, Baillie’s analysis draws her to the conclusion that they may have been Viking mercenaries who modelled themselves on, or behaved in a similar way to the legendary Jomsvikings – a brotherhood of elite killers whose strict military code involved never showing fear, and never fleeing in the face of the enemy unless totally outnumbered.

The documentary places the deaths in the context of the early 11th century and the troubled rule of Aethelred II – better known to history as Aethelred “the Unready”.

Although it is very unusual to find evidence of mass executions from the early medieval period, Aethelred’s reign is an exception. Following a series of Viking raids and threats to his own life, Aethelred decided, in 1002, to have all the Danish men living in England murdered on St Brice’s Day, 13 November – an event which became known as the St Brice’s Day massacre.

Yet the remains in Dorset also suggest that these men were something unique. Researchers have found that one of the men’s teeth had incisions. This rare feature could, it is believed, be the result of the victim filing his teeth deliberately to demonstrate his bravery and status.

Further analysis then reveals that the St. Brice’s day massacre victims in Oxford were killed in a frenzied mob attack. However, the Ridgeway Hill individuals were systematically executed. They were beheaded from the front – just like the warriors in the Jomsviking saga. In the saga, one captured Viking says: “I am content to die as are all our comrades. But I will not let myself be slaughtered like a sheep. I would rather face the blow. Strike straight at my face and watch carefully if I pale at all.”

Both traits link the execution victims to a group which, if not the Jomsvikings themselves, had similar principles and beliefs. But Baillie also finds further written evidence to support the idea. A source commissioned by Queen Emma, Aethelred’s second wife, hints that there was a group of Viking mercenaries somewhere in England at this time led by Thorkell the Tall, an alleged Jomsviking.

“Thorkell’s story is itself unclear and shrouded in legend,” Baillie added. “But Emma’s record connects Jomsvikings to England at exactly this time. Clearly these men had shown a level of bravery similar to the Jomsviking code. So while we cannot be certain about who they were, there are a number of tie-ins that take us down that route.”

 Possible early migration to Virginia :

1618 - Robert Hussye & Francis Outlawe - 11 Oct 1618 - Marriages at Hedenham Norfolk - Hedenham

A Robert Hussye dies in Virginia plantation in 1624 but no mention of a wife (Francis Outlawe):


Abraham PEIRSEY/PIERSEY arrived at Jamestowne aboard the ship "Susan", the first Magazine Ship sent to the Colony in 1616 from England. His wife, Elizabeth DRAPER and their two daughters, Elizabeth and Mary, arrived on the "Southampton" in 1616. He returned to England on the "Susan" and returned to Jamestowne aboard the "George", the second magazine ship. Abraham Peirsey was a Virginia Company stockholder. He made a trading visit to Newfoundland in 1619 on the "George" to exchange tobacco for fish.

Governor Sir George Yeardley sold his plantation known as Flowerdieu Hundred, which was on the south side of the James River just upstream from James City, to Abraham Peirsey in 1624. Peirsey was a merchant-planter who, after Yeardley, ranked as the second wealthiest man in Virginia. 

A census of the colony taken in 1625 provides some rare details about Flowerdew Hundred at that time. A total of 57 people lived on the plantation, including 29 servants and 7 Negroes' belonging to Peirsey. 

In August 1619 the first African slaves are brought to Virginia by Captain Jope in a Dutch ship. Governor Yeardley and a merchant, Abraham PEIRSEY, exchange twenty of them for supplies. These Africans become indentured servants like the white indentured servants who traded passage for servitude. They were found to be quite profitable in the cultivation of tobacco which was the staple crop at that time. The other residents included six married men, their families and servants, three single men, and a minister. There were twelve dwelling houses on the plantation as well as three storehouses, four tobacco houses, and the first windmill erected in the country. Ample supplies of food were on hand in the form of cattle, hogs, corn, peas, and quantities of fish. A continued concern over defense was reflected in the cannon, armour, gunpowder, and swords listed. Floweredieu Hundred became a palisaded settlement which may account for there being only six deaths during the Indian uprising in 1622.

 In 1624, Peirsey owned Windmill Point at Peirseys Hundred which included twelve dwellings, three storehouses, four tobacco houses and the first windmill constructed in America. (Recontruction completed in 1978 to commemorate the original mill erected in 1621 by the original owner, Sir George Yeardley.) Abraham Peirsey was appointed to the Commission on 24 Oct 1623 along with John Pory, John Harvey, John Jefferson and Samuel Mathews to "look into the state of Virginia." He was appointed to the Council 1624 and was a member of the House of Burgesses in 1625

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Flowerdew Hundred Archaeology of a Virginia Plantation, 1619-1864 - James Deetz



List of Dead in Virginia  Since Feb 16 1623:


At flower de hundred

At Elizabeth Citie

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Flowerdew Hundred Plantation - dates to 1618/19 with the patent by Sir George Yeardley, the Governor and Captain General of Virginia, of 1,000 acres (400 ha) on the south side of the James River. Yeardley probably named the plantation after his wife's wealthy father, Anthony Flowerdew, just as he named another plantation "Stanley Hundred" after his wife's wealthy mother, Martha Stanley. (Yeardley's wife, Temperance Flowerdew, came from English gentry in the County of Norfolk.)[2] A "hundred" was historically a division of a shire or county. With a population of about 30, the plantation was economically successful with thousands of pounds of tobacco produced along with corn, fish and livestock. Sir George paid 120 pounds (possibly a hogshead of tobacco) to build the first windmill in British America. Today, Flowerdew Hundred plantation is a private residence. 
In 1624, Abraham Piersey, Cape Merchant of the Virginia Company purchased Flowerdew Hundred renaming it Piersey's Hundred. Piersey’s Stone House was the first home with a permanent foundation in the colony. The 1624 Muster lists approximately sixty occupants at the settlement, including some of the first Africans in Virginia.

Virginia Immigrants and Adventurers, 1607-1635 A Biographical Dictionary - Martha W. McCartney

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Also a Hussey in Barbados but much later 1680:

Saint Michael, Barbados - The parish of St. Michael is one of eleven parishes of Barbados. It has a land area of 39 km² and is found at the south-west portion of the island. Saint Michael has survived by name as one of the original six parishes created in 1629 by Governor Sir William Tufton


Ano: 1680

LIST of the Inhabitants in and about the Towne of S Michaells with their children hired Seruants, Prentices, bought Seruants and Negroes. 


ROBtt HUSSEY & wife 2 (children)


Interesting links to new thinking about the early history of Britain :

Britain BC Episode 1

Britain BC Episode 2

Britain AD Episode 1

Britain AD Episode 2

Britain AD Episode 3

1086 - Hindringham -  Ulf; Wulfnoth, free man of Archbishop Stigand ; Saewulf reeve of Bishop William; Aethelwine, Free Man, Alwine cild, free man; O., free man of Bishop Aethelmaer ( Ulf's - Wolf's  Outlaws and  freemen)

How about Wulfnoth cild ? This shows Saxon  association with the Danes and the Godwin-son story - but here again we have a story of "unjust" accusations and charges being brought to the king :

Wulfnoth Cild - (died c. 1014) was a South Saxon thegn who is regarded by historians as the probable father of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, and thus the grandfather of King Harold Godwinson. It is known that Godwin's father was called Wulfnoth, and in the view of Frank Barlow, the Godwin family's massive estates in Sussex are indisputable evidence that the Wulfnoth in question was the South Saxon thegn

In 1008, King Æthelred the Unready ordered the construction of a fleet, and the following year 300 ships assembled at Sandwich in Kent to meet a threatened Viking invasion. There Brihtric, brother of Eadric Streona, brought unknown charges against Wulfnoth before the king, unjustly according to John of Worcester.[2] Wulfnoth then fled with twenty ships and ravaged the south coast. Brihtric followed with eighty, but his fleet was driven ashore by a storm and burnt by Wulfnoth. After the loss of a third of the fleet the remaining ships were withdrawn to London, and the Vikings were able to invade Kent unopposed. Æthelred almost certainly confiscated Wulfnoth's property as a result.[3][4]

Wulfnoth Cild died by June 1014

King Harolds brother: 

Wulfnoth Godwinson - (1040–1094) was a younger brother of Harold II of England, the sixth son of Godwin.
He was given as a hostage to Edward the Confessor in 1051 as assurance of Godwin's good behaviour and support during the confrontation between the earl and the king which led to the exile of Godwin and his other son
s. Upon Godwin's return to England at the head of an army a year later, following extensive preparations in Ireland and Flanders, Norman supporters of King Edward, and especially Archbishop Robert of Jumieges, fled England. It is likely at this point that Wulfnoth (and Hakon, son of Svein Godwinson, Godwin's eldest son) were spirited away by the fleeing archbishop, and taken to Normandy, where they were handed over to Duke William of Normandy.
Even following William's victory at Hastings (1066) over Harold and crowning as King of England in London later that year, England's pacification remained uncertain. William may have held Wulfnoth as hostage against a resurgence of a remnant of Godwinson power.

Wulfnoth stayed in comfortable, if not enviable, captivity in Normandy and later in England, and died in Salisbury in 1094, still a prisoner.

Sons of the Wolf The House of Godwin Origins, Wulfnoth the Pirate

The House of Godwin: Origins, Wulfnoth the Pirate 

The Godwins were the most prolifically famous family of the first half of the 11thc. But just who were they? We all know who Harold Godwinson was and to some extent who his father Godwin was. But just where did they spring from? The following is a short introduction to who the father of Godwin was, Wulfnoth, son of an ealdorman Athlmaer whose lineage can be traced back through the old dynastic line of the Wessex Kings. Yes, Harold was a noble with royal blood. Far more throneworthy than William the Duke of Normandy, who did not have an ounce of Wessex blood in him.

In 1008, King Aethelred ordered that a large fleet of warships from all over the country should be built equating to one from three hundred and ten hides, so 310 ships. Wulfnoth Cild, father of Godwin, was Captain of a fleet that was brought to Sandwich with the rest of the ships from the other parts of England to lie in wait in the defence of this country against the Viking raiders. This time was a great period of intrigue and Eadric Streona was one of the most prominent men at court. He seems to have been a cunning and sly man who took it upon himself to rid the court of any rivals he thought might be in the way of his advancement. Well his brother Beortric might not have been any better for as the Anglo Saxon Chronicle says he accused Wulfnoth of some unknown charges which John of Worcester stated was unjust. These charges, whether unjust or not, may have had something to do with betrayal perhaps and could have been along the lines of Wulfnoth going over to the Danes, though there is no evidence of this, nor is there any evidence that it was Beortric's charge against him. Incensed, Wulfnoth was said to have 'turned away with 20 ships and raided everywhere along the south coast and wrought every kind of harm.'
Later Wulfnoth's father,  an Ealderman called Aethelmaer, defected to the Danish King Swein, most likely followed by his son Wulfnoth. Both of these men died around 1014.

Earliest Outlaw Rune Stone in Geatland Småland:
700~1000ADÚtlagi placed this stone in memory of Sveinn -Rune sm103 - Småland
Second later Utlage  Rune in Geatland
Västergötland, Sweden :
- Utlage raised this stone in memory of Eyvindr, a very good thegn Rune vg62 - Ballstorp, Edsvära, Västergötland, Sweden

English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark FAQs

What are the different versions of the runic alphabet?

Like most alphabets, the runic alphabet has had a number of variant forms, at different times and in different places. Many of these various rune-rows are recorded in fuþark-inscriptions, which show that there was a fixed order for the characters that is quite different from the ABC order of the roman and related alphabets.

Runic inscriptions from the European continent, and the oldest runic inscriptions in Scandinavia, are in what is known as the 'older' or 'common Germanic fuþark', which has 24 characters, and which was in use from around the second century A.D.

Around, or just before, the beginning of the Viking Age, the Scandinavians reduced the number of runic characters to 16. This 'younger fuþark' was in use from the eighth century onwards, in Scandinavia, and in those parts of the world settled by Scandinavians during the Viking Age. The younger fuþark has a number of variants, including a shorthand version. This 16-character fuþark was expanded again with further characters towards the end of and after the Viking Age, under the influence of writing in the roman alphabet which was introduced to Scandinavia about then. In the Scandinavian Middle Ages, the rune-row was sometimes written in ABC or 'alphabet' order.

The earliest Anglo-Saxon inscriptions are based on the 24-character runic alphabet, but from the seventh century some distinctively Anglo-Saxon runes appear, forming a fuþorc of 28 characters, although further runes are sometimes used, particularly in manuscripts.


When and where were runes used?

In Scandinavia, runes were regularly known and used from around the second century A.D. until about the sixteenth, though the intensity and kind of use varied at different times and in different places during this long period. During the Viking Age (800-1100), Scandinavians took their knowledge and use of runes with them in their expansions both east and west. Inscriptions in Scandinavian language and/or runes can be found in the British Isles (England, Scotland, Isle of Man) and Ireland, in the North Atlantic colonies (Faroe, Iceland, Greenland), in Russia, and sporadically elsewhere. The earliest inscription found in Iceland is from around 1000 A.D., and an idiosyncratic runic tradition, plus an antiquarian interest in runes, developed there from around the thirteenth century. In Iceland, as in some other parts of Scandinavia, scripts and signs derived from or related to runes continued to be used up to around 1900.

Anglo-Saxon immigrants brought a knowledge of runes with them to England in the fifth century A.D., and runes were used throughout the Anglo-Saxon period and beyond, though later their use was often antiquarian or esoteric. Anglo-Saxon runes can also be found on the European continent, in manuscripts, or as graffiti left behind by pilgrims to southern Italy.

Corporal James Roy Outlaw, Bethel Police Department, North Carolina

Incident Date: 11/20/1993

Corporal Outlaw was killed when his patrol car struck a tree during a vehicle pursuit. Corporal Outlaw was riding with a trainee when they attempted to stop a suspected DUI driver. The suspect fled and the officers pursued him. During the pursuit the vehicle went off of the roadway and struck the tree. Corporal Outlaw succumbed to his injuries before he could be extricated from the vehicle. His trainee sustained serious injuries and had to medically retire. The suspect was apprehended in a neighboring jurisdiction, but was only charged with traffic violations, and was not charged in connection with Corporal Outlaw's death.

As a result of Corporal Outlaw's death, and other high-profile cases, the North Carolina General Assembly later changed the law to make speeding to elude an officer a felony instead of a misdemeanor.

Corporal Outlaw was posthumously recognized by the North Carolina DARE Officer's Association for his work as a DARE officer. He had been with the agency for three years and was survived by his wife and child


Early English traffic in the New World - 1584 - Roanoke


Looking for 1736 Outlaw's Landing .... not mentioned hmmm...

Outlaws Landing - Edenton - The quitrents for Bertie and Edgecombe Counties were payable at Outlaw's Landing on Chowan River in 1736

The State Records of North Carolina - Walter Clark

VIII. And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid that the Arrears of Quit Rents now due to his Majesty since the 29th day of Septr 1729, or which shall become due on the 29th day of Septr. which shall be in the Year of Our Lord 1735, shall be pd. to his Majesty in the manner following; that is to say, 

The one Moiety or half part between the first day of February & the first day of March 1735 And the other Moiety or half part, together with the Quit Rents which shall then grow due, on the 29th day of Septr, which shall be in the Year of Our Lord 1736 between the first day of February and the first day of Mar. next following; and after the Quit Rents to be paid yearly at the Time aforesd and Places hereafter mentioned in Chowan Precinct at Edenton Burket's Landing & B Landg: in Bertie Precinct at Mr. Arthur Williams's Landg. Sam Williams's Landg. now Mr. Thos Jones's; on Petty Shore at Jno. Howel's Landg. on Chowan River at Jno. Green's Landg. at the Widow Jeffery's Landg. at Theoph. Pugh's Landg. on which Edmd. Wiggins lives, all on Roanoke River, and at Base Island, on Cashi River; in Pequimen's Precinct at the Mouth of Deep Creek; in Little River at the Court house, at the River Bridge and at the Mouth of Yawpim River; in Pasquotank Precinct at the Landg. of Mr. Gab. Burnham, at the Landg. of Mr. Cha Sawyer, at Elihu Albertson at Arunens Creek at the Landing of Col. Jno Palin at the Landg. of Mr. Robt Lowry on Little River and at the Landg. of Mr. W. Reed on Pasquotank River in Currituck Precinct at Tulls Creek Bridge at Henry Woodus's Landg. on North River; at the Town on Roanoke Island; in Tyrrel Precinct at Shikowee Landg. at the Widow Bell's Landg. and at Mr. Jos. Spruel's Landg: in Beaufort Precinct at Bath Town, at Capt. Trip's Landg. and at Burdet's Landg. in Hide Precinct at Mr. Webster's Landg. at Matchapunga River and at Maj Slade's Landg: on Slade's Creek; in Craven Precinct at Newbern Town in Carteret Precinct at Beaufort Town in New Hanover Precinct at Newtown & at Brunswick Town; for the Inhabitants of New River at Heldelberg's Ferry, in Waggamaw Neck at Maj. Paw1ey's Landing; the People of Whittock at Rose Bell's Plantation, Southside of Roanoke River at Barn. McKinne's Senr. Killingsworth Landg. Elias Hodge's Landg. and Jos Lawe's at Tar River. 

Mary Outlaw - 1751 - In James Wood Sr. will ...

Abstract of North Carolina Wills Compiled from Original and Recorded Wills  - North Carolina. 

WOOD, JAMES, SR. Northampton County.

June 25, 1751. March 18, 1752. Northwest Parish. Sons: James (lands on Cuttowhisky Marsh and pasture lands on Cuttowhisky Swamp, together with five negro slaves), Joseph (land on Cuttowhisky, together with six negroes), Jonas (“plantation whereon I now live” on Cuttowhisky Marsh, together with six negroes and a still), Moses (one shilling). Plantation at Coniritratt given to three sons. Daughters: ELIZABETH, SUSANNAH and MARY WOOD, MARY OUTLAW, SARAH DUFFIELD, ANN and CHARITY WOOD, ROSANNAH BOND, WINNY WOOD (negroes given to above-named daughters). Sister: SARAH KILLINGSWORTH. Exeecutors: Joseph and Jonas Wood (sons) Witnesses: BARNARA BAGGOTT, JOHN PARKER, WM. FRYER. Proven before GAR. JOHNSTON at Eden House.

Chowan River is a blackwater river formed with the merging of Virginia's Blackwater and Nottoway rivers near the stateline between Virginia and North Carolina. According to the USGS a variant name is Choan River.
The Eden House bridge on US Route 17 marks the border between the Chowan River and Albemarle Sound.
The Chowan River is one of the three oldest surviving English place-names in the U.S. Along with Roanoke Island and the Neuse River, it was named in 1584 by Captains Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, sent to explore the region by Sir Walter Raleigh. Their "Chowanook", or Chowanoke, name was shortened to Chowan

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Personal Narratives from the Virtual Jamestown Project, 1575-1705

The first voyage made to the coasts of America, with two barks, where in were Captains M. Philip Amadas , and M. Arthur Barlowe , who discovered part of the Country now called Virginia, Anno 1584. Written by one of the said Captains , and sent to sir Walter Raleigh knight, at whose charge and direction, the said voyage was set forth.

   The 27 day of April , in the year of our redemption, 1584 we departed the West of England, with two barks well furnished with men and victuals, having received our last and perfect direcions by your letters, confirming the former instructions, and commandments delivered by your self at our leaving the river of Thames.


The second of July, we found shoal water, where we smelled so sweet, and so strong a smell , as if we had been in the midst of some delicate garden abounding with all kind of odoriferous flowers, by which we were assured, that the land could not be far distant: and keeping good watch, and bearing but slack sail , the fourth of the same month we arrived upon the coast, which we supposed to be a continent and firm land , and we sailed along the same a hundred and twenty English miles before we could find any entrance, or river issuing into the Sea. The first that appeared unto us, we entered , though not without some difficulty , & cast anchor about three harqquebuz-shot within the havens mouth, on the left hand of the same: and after thanks given to God for our safe arrival thither, we manned our boats, and went to view the land next adjoining , and to take possession of the same, in the right of the Queen's most excellent Majesty , as rightful Queen , and Princess of the same, and after delivered the same over to your use, according to her Majesty's grant, and letters patents, under her Highness great Seale. Which being performed, according to the ceremonies used in such enterprises, we viewed the land about us, being, whereas we first landed, very sandy and low towards the waters side, but so full of grapes, as the very beating and surge of the Sea overflowed them, of which we found such plenty , as well there as in all places else, both on the sand and on the green soil on the hills , as in the plains , as well on every little shrub , as also climbing towards the tops of high Cedars, that I think in all the world the like abundance is not to be found: and my self having seen those parts of Europe that most abound, find such difference as were incredible to be written. 


   And whereas we have above certified you of the country taken in possession by us, to her Majesty's use, and so to yours by her Majesty's grant, we thought good for the better assurance thereof to record some of the particular Gentleman, & men of account , who then were present as witnesses of the same, that thereby all occasion of dispute to the title of the country , in her majesty's behalf may be prevented, which otherwise, such as like not the action may use and pretend, whose names are:
Captains :
Master Philip Amadas ,
Master Arthur Barlow ,
Of the Companie:
William Greenevile ,
John Wood ,
James Browewich ,
Henry Greene ,
Benjamin Wood ,
Simon Ferdinando ,
Nicholas Petman ,
John Hewes ,

Arthur Barlowe - was one of two British captains (the other was Phillip Amadas) who, under the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh, left England in 1584 to find land in North America to claim for Queen Elizabeth I of England

Barlowe and Amadas departed England with two ships on April 27th, sailing down to the Canary Islands and then on to the West Indies, where they stopped briefly for food and water before sailing north along the eastern coast of Florida. After eleven days they came to shallow water and smelled "so sweet, and so strong a smell, as if we had been in the midst of some delicate garden," indicating that land was nearby. Two days later (July 4th), they saw the coast and continued to sail for 120 miles until they could find an entrance or river going in from the sea. They finally landed on the outer banks of what is now the Pamlico Sound of North Carolina. Barlow described the land as a place where "in all the world the like abundance is not to be found...." He and his crew were met by a large group of the Secotan tribe, led by their king, Wingina. Several of the natives accompanied them as they sailed north to Roanoke island. There they found a Secotan village, where, according to Barlowe, they were treated with great hospitality and generosity. Barlow described the people of the village as "gentle, loving and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and such as live after the manner of the golden age."[3]

The discovery of Roanoke Island and the coast of North Carolina led to the establishment of the Roanoke Colony. This colony at Roanoke Island would later be known as the "Lost Colony," whose members are presumed to have either starved to death or been incorporated into one of the local native American Indian populations.

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John Hawkins, Frances Drake, and Richard Grenville — English sea captains who mcaptured Spanish treasure ships with the Queen's approval. These men were called privateers, but were little more than pirates sailing under the authority of the crown. Also called "sea dogs." Sir Francis Drake is distinguished as the 1st Englishman to sail around the world.

Gilbert's Voyage Gilbert set sail from England in June 1583 with six ships. In August, Gilbert's ships landed on the coast of Newfoundland and he claimed it for the Queen. The harsh climate of this region prompted Gilbert to return to England. On the return trip, Gilbert's ship sank in a storm. Everyone on board, including Gilbert, was lost.

Sir Walter Raleigh — the half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He was also anxious to colonize land in the New World and was granted a patent or charter on March 25, 1584 by Queen Elizabeth I.

Raleigh's Expedition — Rather than sending a colony to settle in the New World right away, the first voyage Raleigh sponsored was a small exploratory or reconnaissance expedition. Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe were chosen by Raleigh to captain the ships. Simon Fernandez, from Portugal, was hired as the pilot for the voyage. The artist, John White, also sailed on this trip. The expedition left Plymouth, England on April 27, 1584. They arrived at Cape Lookout, off the coast of North Carolina on July 4, 1584. They continued to sail up the coast and on July 13, 1584 arrived at Roanoke Island claiming the area for Queen Elizabeth.
• The first contact with the natives was friendly. Gifts were exchanged. Amadas and Barlowe explored the area for about six weeks. On the return trip, they brought with them some of the local crops, maps, drawings, and two of the local natives — Wanchese and Manteo.
• Queen Elizabeth was delighted with the success of the voyage and the new land was named Virginia, in honor of Elizabeth — the Virgin Queen. Raleigh was knighted and a second voyage planned immediately.
Grenville Expedition Sir Richard Grenville commanded seven ships in an expedition to the New World which left England on April 9, 1585. Others on this voyage included Simon Fernandez, Philip Amadas, John White—an artist, Thomas Harriot—a scientist, Joachim Gans—a mineral expert, and Thomas Cavendish. Manteo and Wanchese returned home also.
Ralph Lane — became commander of the Grenville colony when it landed on Roanoke Island in July, 1585. Since he was a military officer, the colony of 107 men was organized in a military style. A fort was constructed which is now called Fort Raleigh.


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