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Mao was a Yale Man - A Yali with Skull and Bones - Part 2  

Part 2 - Return to Mao was a Yale Man Page 1

Related: OSS recruits IPR members : Internationalizing the Pacific: the United States, Japan, and the IPR ... By Tomoko Akami - "The American World Order"

"The OSS also recruited IPR members...."

Many interesting facts....  considering Sumner Welles was a member of the American branch of the Institute of Pacific Relations,

Owen Lattimore with Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing in 1941
Owen Lattimore was U.S. political advisor to Chiang Kai-shek in 1941; after Pearl Harbor he became director of Pacific Operations for the United States Office of War Information.[1] According a unanimous report of the Senate Judiciary Committee, he was also "from some time beginning in the 1930's, a conscious articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy."[

During the Nazi-Soviet pact, Lattimore was added to Roosevelt's Custodial Detention Index,[14] listed as "Nationalistic tendency—Communist."[15] Later the same year President Franklin Roosevelt appointed Lattimore U.S. adviser to Kuomintang Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek on the surreptitious and out-of-process recommendation of Lattimore's personal friend and patron at the White House,[16] Roosevelt adviser and NKVD agent Lauchlin Currie.[17] While serving in this capacity, according to Chinese military intelligence, Lattimore was sending coded messages to the Communist Chinese rebels.[18]

On November 25, 1941, twelve days before Pearl Harbor, Lattimore dispatched an anxious cable to Currie in the White House arguing against a proposed diplomatic understanding between the United States and Japan. When Congress later investigated the Pearl Harbor attack, U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull testified that he took a tough line with the Japanese because of this cable from Lattimore to Currie reporting on Chinese morale in the Kuomintang. This cable was the only documentary evidence Hull presented which influenced his decision to reverse himself and send the ultimatum to Japan.
Lattimore was a combative witness and waged verbal duels with McCarthy. In April 1950, the surprise witness, Louis F. Budenz, former editor of the Communist Party organ Daily Worker. testified Lattimore was a secret Communist, but not a Soviet agent, that is, he was a person of influence who often assisted Soviet foreign policy. Budenz said his Party superiors told him Lattimore's "great value lay in the fact that he could bring the emphasis in support of Soviet policy in non-Soviet language."[21] The majority report for the Tydings committee cleared Lattimore of all charges against him; the minority report accepted Budenz's charges.

In February 1952, Lattimore was called to testify before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (S.I.S.S), headed by McCarthy's ally, Senator Pat McCarran. Before Lattimore was called as witness, investigators for the S.I.S.S. had seized all of the records of the Institute of Pacific Relations (I.P.R). The twelve days of testimony were marked by shouting matches which pitted McCarran and McCarthy on one hand against Lattimore on the other. Lattimore took three days to deliver his opening statement; the delays were caused by frequent interruptions as McCarran challenged Lattimore point by point.

Related to this is Lauchlin Currie Assitant to FDR and Soviet Spy who recommended Lattimore for his job....
Lauchlin Bernard Currie (8 October 1902 - 23 December 1993) was Administrative Assistant to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and a Soviet spy.
Currie became Administrative Assistant to President Franklin Roosevelt in July of 1939[1], and was empowered to coordinate "the work of the various departments in their relations to the Executive." [2]

Whittaker Chambers, a former affiliate of the Soviet Secret Intelligence Service in Washington, D. C., for the purpose of developing a government underground, stated that Lauchlin Currie was a 'fellow Traveler' who helped various Communists. This statement was made to a representative of the State Department when Chambers was questioned relative to individuals in the Government who were allegedly active in behalf of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union.
Soviet archives likewise identify Currie as a Soviet intelligence source. In 1948, Anatoly Gorsky identified Currie in the "Gorsky memo"as the Soviet agent code-named "PAZh/Page,"[10] who is recorded in Venona giving information to Akhmerov and "handing over documents" to Silvermaster.
In the early part of 1941, Currie was sent to be Head of the Economic Mission to China as personal envoy of the President to confer with Chiang Kai-shek and other leading executives of the Kuomintang. Currie studied Chinese arsenals, military training schools, and industrial cooperatives while in China.

Amerasia scandal
Currie was listed as one of the individuals who attended the Institute of Pacific Relations Conference held at Mont Tremblant, Canada, from December 5 to 19, 1942. In the early part of September 1943, Currie was appointed as Acting Deputy Administrator and he remained until the early part of 1945. He then resumed his former White House duties.

It was Currie who recommended Owen Lattimore to President Roosevelt to serve as a special advisor to Jiang Jieshi(Chiang Kai-shek). [18]

Currie with Madame Chiang Kai Shek

Currie was a top-level adviser in President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and served as FDR’s economic adviser in the White House from 1939-1945. From 1949 until his death in 1993, he was a top-level development economist in Latin America.

In 1944-1945, he took part in loan negotiations with the United States’ British and Soviet allies, as well as in preparations for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire (July 1-22, 1944), which led to the creation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Currie was hired by the World Bank in 1949 despite earlier allegations of Soviet espionage made by two defectors from the Communist cause – Elizabeth Bentley and Whittaker Chambers. Bentley claimed that Currie, whom she had never seen, had been part of an espionage ring headed by Nathan Gregory Silvermaster.

Precious Fire: Maud Russell and the Chinese Revolution
Russell and a few other western YWCA secretaries developed a shared vision of feminist social change that included support for the Chinese Communist Party and its leadership.
Her notoriety as a proponent of friendship with the People's Republic of China soared during the restoration of U.S -- China diplomatic relations in the 1970s, only to dissolve in the 1980s as she denounced the revival of capitalist economics in China on ideological grounds
Maud Russell, 96; Aided Chinese Published: November 10, 1989

Maud Russell, who spent a quarter of a century in China as a welfare worker and teacher for the Young Women's Christian Association and lobbied for American recognition of the Chinese Communist Government after World War II, died of lung cancer Wednesday at her home in Manhattan. She was 96 years old.

Miss Russell went to China in 1917 as part of the Y.W.C.A.'s missionary service and spent much of her time in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province. When the revolutionary army of Chiang Kai-shek advanced on the city in 1930, she refused to leave with other British and American missionaries, who gave her up for dead and held a memorial service in her honor.

She survived that siege and others in the years of civil war and the war with Japan that began in the mid-1930's, remaining in China until her return to the United States in 1943.

After World War II, she became executive director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, which promoted friendship with the Communist forces that soon drove Chiang and the Nationalists from the continent and onto Taiwan. She published a journal, Far East Reporter, from 1953 until this year and lectured for many years on China and other Asian countries.

Was Reagan a Spy for the government in the 40's? :
Reagan's "subversive" ties

The FBI's background report on Kerr contrasts with the bureau's background investigation of Reagan after he was elected governor in 1966 and became a regent ex officio, FBI records show.

That process began when Reagan filled out a federal form required to get a security clearance, and stated that he never belonged to any group deemed officially subversive, a copy of the form shows.

According to FBI records, the bureau knew Reagan had been in two such groups in the 1940s - the Committee for a Democratic Far East Policy and the American Veterans Committee  (Tim Leary and Cord Myer)- but the FBI background report failed to note that Reagan's denial was untrue. Hundreds of people in the 1940s and 1950s had faced hearings and sometimes dismissals from federal employment for failing to disclose membership in groups deemed subversive.

[ 1947-48: As a graduate student in psychology, Leary attends the first two national conventions of the American Veterans Committee (AVC), a left-wing veterans group, as a California state delegation leader. At the second AVC convention, in Milwaukee, Leary meets Cord Meyer, who is then spearheading an anti-communist purge of the organization. Meyer lectures Leary about communism, and the importance of liberal resistance to it. Leary will later credit Meyer with "helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly."  ... Late 1950: Cord Meyer joins CIA and begins working in its International Relations Division]

The man who sold the world: Ronald Reagan and the betrayal of Main Street ... By William Kleinknecht
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy

In 1948, Maud Russell was Executive director of the New York based Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy.[1]

Consultants to the Committee included;[2]

Charles Bidien
T. A. Bisson
Hugh Deane
Israel Epstein
Harrison Forman
Kumar Goshal
Philip J. Jaffe
The Hon. Michael Lindsay
Kate L. Mitchell
Bernard Seeman
Gunther Stein
Maxwell S. Stewart
Ilona Ralf Sues
Chu Tong

She survived that siege and others in the years of civil war and the war with Japan that began in the mid-1930's, remaining in China until her return to the United States in 1943.

After World War II, she became executive director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, which promoted friendship with the Communist forces that soon drove Chiang and the Nationalists from the continent and onto Taiwan. She published a journal, Far East Reporter, from 1953 until this year and lectured for many years on China and other Asian countries.
YWCA of the U.S.A. Records.  Record Group 5. International

Worship Service, YWCA Girls Camp, Chengdu, China, 1940

World War I significantly impacted the international work of the YWCA by diverting resources from places like Latin America and Turkey to organized relief efforts in Europe and elsewhere. The National Board organized the War Work Council in 1917, and the bulk of the National Association's war relief work in Europe and the Near East was carried out under the auspices of the War Work Council. [See World War I for more details]
Maud Russell Papers, 1914-1990
Maud Muriel Russell was born on August 9, 1893, in Hayward, Alameda County, California, near San Francisco. The oldest of four children, she was the daughter of Thomas Bartlett Russell, a fruit grower and civil engineer, and Lelia Smalley Russell. Russell attended Hayward public schools and the University of California at Berkeley, where she was active in the campus chapter of the Young Women's Christian Association. It was through the Berkeley YWCA that she met Mary Ingle Bentley (1878-1940), who later became her closest friend and life companion.

In the spring of 1917, the office received a visit from a recruiter for the YWCA of China. Intrigued, Russell arranged to meet with her. Although a graduate degree in social work was usually a prerequisite for overseas work with the YWCA, Russell was chosen for work in China on the condition that she spend part of her furloughs (roughly every seven years) in graduate study in the U.S. She sailed for Shanghai in August 1917.
The western women who worked for the China YWCA were expected to help their Chinese colleagues establish YWCAs in their communities, then to turn over the leadership of those Ys to an all-Chinese staff. Russell's first posting, after language study in Nanking, was with the newly-formed YWCA in Changsha, Hunan Province. She was there from 1919 until her first furlough in 1924, and again from 1928 to 1930 and 1932-1933.
The spring of 1927 was a turning point for Russell. She began to question more closely the various roles played by foreigners in China; at the same time, she began to read Marxist theory and to learn more about the 1917 Russian Revolution and the founding of the Soviet Union, with its implications for China. While on furlough in 1932, she spent some months in Leningrad and Moscow observing Soviet society before returning to China via Siberia and Manchuria.
While in Shanghai in the early 1930s, she participated in a Marxist study group comprised of westerners and Chinese. Among them were the New Zealander Rewi Alley, later a founder of Indusco (Chinese Industrial Cooperatives), and YWCA colleagues Lily K. Haass, Talitha Gerlach, and Cora Deng (Deng Yu-shih). All four remained lifelong friends of Russell.
By early 1946, she had become an active member of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy (CDFEP), a progressive organization whose goals included opposition to American intervention in China, in particular the Truman administration's backing of the Nationalist government headed by Chiang Kai-shek.

Russell assumed the executive directorship of the CDFEP in June 1946, a position she held until the Committee's dissolution six years later. She moved from Passaic to New York in 1947, where she found an apartment on West 93rd Street with a China acquaintance, Ida Pruitt, the field director for the American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. (Russell and Pruitt continued to share quarters until June 1961, when their building was slated for demolition. Pruitt moved to Philadelphia and Russell took an apartment on Riverside Drive, where she lived until her death in 1989.)
University of Missouri - Kansas City

Edgar Snow - personal, business, and general correspondence

This section consists of personal, business, and general correspondence. Special correspondence regarding Indusco, the International School of America, World Law Fund, manuscripts, and the film documentary, "One Fourth of Humanity," are located elsewhere in the collection. ...

Throughout this section there are also subject groupings. Edgar Snow himself may not have assigned all these subject headings; some may have been assigned by the individuals Lois Snow hired to process the papers. Regardless, the groupings have been retained and placed in the listing chronologically.
Folder 13. Evans and Peggy Carlson 1938, 1945, 1947, 1951

The 1939 correspondence includes letters regarding the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives and correspondence with James Bertram and Agnes Smedley.

Folder 25. Correspondence 1948-49
includes correspondence with Maud Russell, Agnes Smedley, and the Committee for Democratic Far Eastern Policy and Committee newsletters

Folder 26. Correspondence 1949-70
with Agnes Smedley and correspondence regarding her books and estate

Folder 28. Correspondence 1951

The correspondence for 1952-56 includes discussion of the Senator Joseph McCarthy Hearings for the House Un-American Activities Committee and Snow’s questioning by the FBI.

Brigadier General Evans Fordyce Carlson (26 February 1896 – 27 May 1947) was the famed U.S. Marine Corps leader of the World War II "Carlson's Raiders". He is renowned for the "Makin Island raid" on August 17, 1942 and their "Long Patrol" (aka Carlson's patrol or Carlson's Raiders) from November 4, 1942 to December 4, 1942 behind Japanese lines on Guadalcanal, in which 488 Japanese were killed, 16 Raiders were killed and 18 wounded, during the Guadalcanal campaign.

Carlson is also credited with first coining the term"Gung-ho" as it is most popularly used today.
He was survived by his wife, Mrs. Peggy Tatum Carlson, and a son by a previous marriage, Evans C. Carlson.–_ICCIC
The International Committee for the Promotion of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives (ICCIC, also known by its nickname Gung Ho International Committee) was founded in 1939 in Hong Kong to form cooperatives in China. The organization's nickname and slogan, Gung Ho, means "work hard and work together".

Rewi Alley, Edgar Snow, Helen Snow, and others initiated the Gung Ho (工合 "Gong He", literally "work together") movement in Shanghai in 1937. The movement aimed to organize unemployed workers and refugees, increasing production to support the Chinese people's war of resistance against Japanese aggression. Subsequently, the Chinese Industrial Cooperative Association was established in 1938

Edgar Snow and Evans Carlson - Phillippines - 1940
Günther Stein or Gunther Stein was a German print journalist.

Stein was a foreign correspondent in China for the Manchester Guardian, the Christian Science Monitor, and the Associated Press.

Erwin D. Canham, editor of The Monitor during this period wrote later in his 1958 history of the newspaper, "Commitment to Freedom," of Stein's brief contribution to the paper from Japan and China which ended in 1945. He refers to reports of Stein as working for the Soviet Union while in Japan and the connection with the Sorge spy ring. He refers to Stein as "enigmatic" and says that "too little was known."

Senator Joseph McCarthy accused Stein of spying for China during the Red Scare, as part of the Sorge spy ring.

Edgar Snow was connected with James Munro Bertram:

James Munro Bertram (11 August 1910 – 24 August 1993) was a Rhodes scholar, a journalist, writer, relief worker, prisoner of war and a university professor.
In 1932 Bertram received his Diploma in Journalism and was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship.

Studying at New College, Oxford, he came first in English and second in Modern Languages. He was active in left-wing clubs and rugby.

Following Oxford he became an international correspondent with The Times. In 1935 he received a travelling fellowship from the Rhodes Trust to visit China, where he learnt Mandarin in Beijing for a year. The fellowship was renewed for 1937 and he travelled to Xi'an where General Chiang Kai-shek had been captured by communist sympathisers.

He was the first British journalist to interview Mao Zedong and travelled for five months with the Eighth Route Army in northern China. He wrote two books on these experiences: Crisis in China (1937) and North China Front (1939).

Bertram began to more actively support China, and performed aid work with the China Defence League, for whom he gave fund-raising lectures in a tour of the US, and led a convoy of supply trucks from Haiphong in Indochina to Yan'an. Part-way through this journey England declared war on Germany, and he returned to New Zealand. Shortly later he returned to Hong Kong to continue work for the China Defence League.
For some years he remained active in communist groups such as the Society for Closer Relations with Russia and the New Zealand China Society, and tried unsuccessfully to persuade Victoria University to develop an Eastern Studies department.

James Bertram died in Lower Hutt on 24 August 1993,

[Notice the they all got together in the Philippines in 1940 - Edgar Snow seems to be the Coordinator ....]

James Bertram during visit with the. Snows in the Philippines, 1940. figure.
Edgar Snow and Soong Qingling (Madame Sun Yat-sen), in later 1930s

Soong Ching Ling founded the China Defence League in Hong Kong in June, 1938. The picture shows Soong Ching Ling with members of the Central Committee of the China Defense League in Hong Kong. From right to left: Liao Cheng Zhi, Norman France, Hilda Selwyn-Clarke, Soong Ching Ling, Liao Meng Xing, Deng Wen Zhao, Israel Epstein.

Season of High Adventure - Edgar Snow in China

Gung Ho for a Wartime China

From the Philippines in 1940 they also drew up and orchestrated a petition to Roosevelt for a $50 million American loan for CIC. Sponsored by Indusco committees in the Philippines and the United States, the document was signed by an illustrious list of Americans. Snow pushed the idea in his first meeting with the apparently sympathetic president early in 1942. Roosevelt sidestepped these efforts on grounds of nonin-terference in Chinese domestic affairs.
But in truth, Snow was a leader at every stage of the CIC saga through 1941. Rewi Alley's later apt description of Ed as "standard bearer of Gung Ho" was closer to the reality than Snow's own disclaimers.

Reagan - Lilley - HWBush  -  Cord Meyer

Interesting:CIA agent Cord Meyer was a member of  the Yale Club of Washington
So was James R. Lilley Amb. to China 1989 - both a CIA asset and an Amb. hmmm...
George J. Tenet, the C.I.A. director, released a statement calling Mr. Meyer "a passionate defender of freedom around the world."

Born here in 1920, the son of a diplomat and grandson of a New York State Democratic chairman, Mr. Meyer attended elite schools and entered Yale University in 1939. In 1942, he enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve. He was sent to the South Pacific, where, as a machine-gun platoon leader, he took part in the assault on Guam. He was wounded in a grenade attack and lost his left eye. He was later awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star.

Mr. Meyer's twin brother, Quentin, was killed at Okinawa.

Mr. Meyer was a founding member of the United World Federalists, where he fought for controls on the use of atomic weapons. He also helped establish the American Veterans Committee, a liberal group that sought to deny preferential treatment for veterans. While in that organization, he came in direct contact with Communist infiltration techniques, said his son, Mark Meyer. Mr. Meyer's moves to thwart Soviet agents helped exonerate him from accusations that he would soon face, his son said.  

With the explosion of an atomic bomb by the Soviet Union in 1949, Mr. Meyer saw his hopes for arms control dissipate and was troubled by the Berlin blockade and the invasion of South Korea. He left his postgraduate work at Harvard and signed up with the C.I.A.  

Two years after joining the spy agency, Mr. Meyer was accused by the F.B.I. of Communist sympathies. A C.I.A. hearing board eventually acquitted him of all charges.

A fluent writer whose dispatches from the war were published in The Atlantic Monthly, Mr. Meyer at age 26 completed a short story, "Waves of Darkness," that won the O. Henry Prize in 1946 for best first-published story.

See: "Bion - his “beams of darkness"

| - -- - -

Now read the following  and tell me that Lilley did not know Downey  in 1952:
Welcome to the Yale Club of Washington!
Ambassador James R. Lilley '51

Ambassador Lilley will discuss his newly published book, China Hands, a memoir of his career as a CIA Officer in Asia during the Cold War and, subsquently, as a diplomat serving as the de facto US Ambassador to Taiwan in the early 1980s and as Ambassador first to South Korea and then to China during the Tiananmen Massacre in 1989.

This book, which has been favorably reviewd by critics, begins with his childhood growing up in China. After graduation from Yale in 1951, he joined the CIA and served in Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong with the mission to learn as much as possible about mainland China, including training guerrillas and dropping agents into the mainland.

His insider accounts of US-China relations during the Nixon years through Tiananmen Square are fascinating, particularly his letter to President George H. W. Bush warning about imminent violence that was intercepted and went unheeded by the Washington diplomats.

Date: Wednesday, October 13

James Roderick Lilley (simplified Chinese: 李洁明; traditional Chinese: 李潔明; pinyin: Lǐ​ Jié​míng​); born January 15, 1928 in Qingdao, China; died November 12, 2009 in Washington, DC; was an American diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to China at the time of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Born to American parents in China, he learned Mandarin at a young age before his family moved back to the United States at the outbreak of World War II. Lilley served in the United States Army before earning an undergraduate degree from Yale University and a masters in international relations from George Washington University. He then joined the Central Intelligence Agency,
[ A Rockefeller boy: ]
His father, an oil executive who had moved to China to work for Standard Oil in 1916, and his mother, a teacher, hired a Chinese nanny to help raise him, and he spoke Mandarin fluently from a young age in addition to French and English...
 In the United States, he attended Phillips Exeter Academy and served in the United States Army at Fort Dix, New Jersey from 1945-1946. During his army service, Lilley's elder brother, whom he revered and who was an American soldier stationed in Hiroshima, Japan, committed suicide
As a CIA operative, Lilley worked in countries across Asia, including Laos, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China.[3] In Laos, he worked to undermine the Communist insurgency, and he helped to insert a number of CIA agents into China.[1] By 1975, Lilley was appointed to the position of national intelligence officer for China, which made him the highest-ranked expert on China in the American intelligence community
Lilley was appointed by President George H.W. Bush to be Ambassador to China in 1989, becoming the only American diplomat to head diplomatic missions in both mainland China and Taiwan

| - - - - - CIA/Yale in China 1951:
Two CIA Prisoners in China, 1952–73

Beijing’s capture, imprisonment, and eventual release of CIA officers John T. Downey and Richard G. Fecteau is an amazing story that too few know about today. Shot down over Communist China on their first operational mission in 1952, these young men spent the next two decades imprisoned, often in solitary confinement, while their government officially denied they were CIA officers.

Fecteau was released in 1971, Downey in 1973. They came home to an America vastly different from the place they had left, but both adjusted surprisingly well and continue to live full lives
John Downey and Richard Fecteau were youthful CIA paramilitary officers: Downey, born in Connecticut, had entered CIA in June 1951, after graduating from Yale; Fecteau, from Massachusetts, entered on duty a few months later, having graduated from Boston University. Both men had been varsity football players, and both were outgoing and engaging with noted senses of humor. They were on their first overseas assignment when the shootdown occurred.

By late 1952, the Korean War had been going on for more than two years. Accounts often identify that war as the reason for the operation Downey and Fecteau were participating in. While largely true, the flight the men were on was part of operations that had antecedents in the US response to the communist takeover of China in 1949. In accordance with US policies, CIA took steps to exploit the potential for a Chinese “Third Force” by trying to link Chinese agents, trained by CIA, with alleged dissident generals on the mainland. This Third Force, while anticommunist, would be separate from the Nationalists, who were assessed to be largely discredited on the mainland

This Third Force project received new emphasis after the Communist Chinese intervened in the Korean War. At that point, the project aimed to divert Chinese resources from the war in Korea by promoting domestic antigovernment guerrilla operations. This was to be accomplished by small teams of Chinese agents, generally inserted through airdrops, who were to link up with local guerrilla forces, collect intelligence and possibly engage in sabotage and psychological warfare, and report back by radio.[3] The operational model was the OSS experience in Europe during World War II, which assumed a cooperative captive population—a situation, as it turned out, that did not prevail in China.

By the time of Downey and Fecteau’s involvement in the Third Force program, its record was short and inauspicious. Because of resource constraints, the training of Chinese agents at CIA facilities in Asia was delayed, and the first Third Force team to be airdropped did not deploy until April 1952. This fourman team parachuted into southern China and was never heard from again.

The second Third Force team comprised five ethnic Chinese dropped into the Jilin region of Manchuria in midJuly 1952. Downey was well known to the Chinese operatives on this team because he had trained them. The team quickly established radio contact with Downey’s CIA unit outside of China and was resupplied by air in August and October. A sixth team member, intended as a courier between the team and the controlling CIA unit, was dropped in September. In early November, the team reported contact with a local dissident leader and said it had obtained needed operational documents such as official credentials. They requested airexfiltration of the courier, a method he had trained for but that the CIA had never attempted operationally.

Mission Gone Awry

The C47, with its CAT pilots and CIA crew, was heading for a trap. The agent team, unbeknownst to the men on the flight, had been captured by Communist Chinese security forces and had been turned.[5] The request for exfiltration was a ruse, and the promised documentation and purported contact with a local dissident leader were merely bait. The team members almost certainly had told Chinese authorities everything they knew about the operation and about the CIA men and facilities associated with it. From the way the ambush was conducted, it was clear that the Chinese Communists knew exactly what to expect when the C47 arrived at the pickup point
Whether due to gunfire, the impact, or the fire, the pilots died at the scene.[9] Fecteau later remembered standing outside the aircraft with Downey, both stunned but conscious, telling each other that they were “in a hell of a mess.” The Chinese security forces descended on them, “whooping and hollering,” and they gave themselves up to the inevitable.
Over the years, various explanations arose within CIA to explain Downey and Fecteau’s participation in the illfated mission. It seemed incredible to operations officers that two CIA employees, familiar with operations, locations, and personnel, would be sent on a mission that exposed them to possible capture by the Chinese Communists

"It may have been poor judgment on the part of Downey and Fecteau’s boss, the CIA unit chief"
The men were never tortured physically or, after their initial capture, beaten.[12] Fecteau reported that he wore leg irons constantly for the first 10 months and that he was made to stand during interrogations to the point of falling down from exhaustion, especially after being caught lying or bluffing. Downey remembered the leg irons and the intense psychological pressure of interrogations, plus the added mental stress from concocting new stories after the cover story evaporated—as he later acknowledged, telling lies requires an extraordinarily good memory.

Eventually both men—isolated from each other, battered psychologically, threatened with torture and execution—talked, albeit divulging varying degrees of truth. Downey, hemmed in by the disclosures of the team he had trained, confessed his CIA affiliation on the 16th day. He later recalled that telling what he knew was liberating: “I’m free and they have got to leave me in peace, and thus relieve the psychological strain of resisting…. [They] can’t come at me anymore mentally because it is all out there.”
That day, 23 November 1954, almost a year after the CIA had pronounced Downey and Fecteau “presumed dead,” Beijing declared them alive, in custody, and serving their sentences as convicted CIA spies. The first that the Agency learned of it was through a New China News Agency broadcast. At the same time, the Chinese announced the sentencing, also for espionage, of the officers and crew of a US Air Force B29 aircraft, shot down over China some weeks after Downey and Fecteau’s C47 flight.
CIA comes clean about failed Cold War spy mission
By ROBERT BURNS, AP National Security Writer Published: Jun 19, 2010

WASHINGTON (AP) - Detail by painful detail, the CIA is coming to grips with one of the most devastating episodes in its history, a botched cloak-and-dagger flight into China that stole two decades of freedom from a pair of fresh-faced American operatives and cost the lives of their two pilots.

In opening up about the 1952 debacle, the CIA is finding ways to use it as a teaching tool. Mistakes of the past can serve as cautionary tales for today's spies and paramilitary officers taking on al-Qaida and other terrorist targets
Three years ago, the CIA declassified an internal history of the affair. Now it's hired a filmmaker to produce an hourlong documentary. The CIA does not plan to release the film publicly. But the agency premiered it for employees on Tuesday at its Langley, Va., headquarters, and an AP reporter attended.

Downey and Fecteau declined through CIA officials to be interviewed for this story. They attended the film screening and were flooded with applause and agency autograph seekers.

He joined the Central Intelligence Agency soon after Yale and became one of two CIA officers (the other was Richard G. Fecteau, a Boston University graduate) who survived the shoot-down of their mission over the People's Republic of China in November 1952, were captured, and spent approximately the next two decades in Chinese prisons before release. Today, the episode is less well known than that of Gary Powers, the United States Air Force spy plane pilot who was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960.
In late June 1998, CIA Director George Tenet awarded Downey and Fecteau the CIA Director's Medal for their service to their country, in a private ceremony described in an Associated Press article on July 3, 1998.

The AP account quoted Ambassador James R. Lilley, a retired CIA officer and Yale classmate of Downey's who served as U.S. envoy in both Seoul and Beijing a speaker at the event, saying that Downey was released after Nixon publicly admitted he had been on a CIA operation.


Harrow School
Elite schools lead education boom in Asia
By Adrian Addison (AFP) – Jun 1, 2011

HONG KONG — A strong brand name can go a long way in Asia. From watches to cars, clothes to fine artwork, food to handbags -- even education.

The offspring of the booming region's wealthy elite are enrolling in some of the world's most famous schools and universities. But they don't have to get on a long-haul flight to do so.

Many of the world's most prestigious institutions have built, or are building, new campuses in some of Asia's thriving cities.

Harrow School is one of England's most famous fee-paying schools with a long and impressive list of "old boys".

British wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill, the poet Lord Byron, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, King Hussein of Jordan and even the pop singer James Blunt once wore the school's famous straw boater hat.

Next year Harrow will open a new campus for 1,200 students in Hong Kong, which follows Harrow schools already opened in Bangkok and Beijing, to help satisfy a growing demand for ultra high-end schooling in Asia.

It won't be cheap.

Parents will have to pay a debenture -- basically a deposit -- of HK$600,000 ($77,000) to secure a place plus annual fees of up to HK$145,000.

Mark Hensman, the executive headmaster of Harrow International Schools, says the demand for expensive schooling is being driven by parents whose ambitions for their children have risen in line with their incomes.

"These aspirations result specifically in the need to learn English and gaining qualifications that will facilitate access to western universities," he told AFP.

"The trend in recent years has been for the growth of international schools to be sustained by a rapidly increasing demand from local parents rather than from expatriate parents.

"Governments in these countries are struggling to meet these expectations in their local education system and so international schools are increasingly filling the vacuum."
It was Harrow's links to the Thai royal family that originally brought the school to Asia -- 23 princes were educated at the original Harrow school over a 100 year period including the present king's father.

A visit to Thailand by the teachers of the crown prince's sons in the mid-1990s led to a proposal the school open a branch in Bangkok in 1998, as many Thai parents were already sending their children to the UK and the US.

"Significantly, more and more British public schools are opening schools abroad and some of the British public schools which have previously opened international schools are looking to open more," Harrow's Hensman said.

"We are looking to open up to another two schools in the region."

Quote from: TahoeBlue on Today at 10:51:46 AM
So the Milner-Rhodes-Rothschild  RAII / Chatham House Group owns the Hotel....

GRANDSON Rory Monck:
Rory Penryn Monck was educated at Harrow School
In this picture is the Grandson of Charles Sydney Goldman who put up the finance for the building of Suvretta House in the early 20th c, a letter was found recently in one of the towers during restorations requesting that the Hotel stays unchanged forever and I think that they have achieved that beautifully, it is a magical place
Harrow School, known simply as "Harrow", is an English independent school for boys situated in the town of Harrow, in north-west London.[1]
Harrow has many notable alumni, who are known as Old Harrovians, including seven former British Prime Ministers including Winston Churchill and Robert Peel (the creator of the modern Police Force and founder of the Conservative Party), and the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. In addition, nineteen Old Harrovians have been awarded the Victoria Cross.[8]

The school has educated three monarchs: Mukarram Jah the last Nizam of Hyderabad, King Hussein of Jordan and his cousin, Faisal II, the last King of Iraq, and had among its pupils a large number from the Thai, Indian, Malaysian and Middle Eastern royal families. A number of members of the British Royal Family have also attended the school.

Other notable alumni include writers (including Lord Byron, Sir Terence Rattigan and Richard Curtis), numerous aristocrats (including the current richest British subject, the Duke of Westminster and the prominent reformist Lord Shaftesbury) and business people (including DeBeers chairman Nicky Oppenheimer, ...

The actual name change: Goldman to Monck :
WE, Withers & Co. of 4 Arundel Street, Strand, London, W.C.2, Solicitors for VICTOR ROBERT PENRYN MONK MONCK of The Albany, Piccadilly, London, W.i, heretofore called Victor Robert Penryn Monk Goldman, hereby give notice that on the 22nd day of February 1939 the said Victor Robert Penryn Monk Monck renounced and abandoned the use of his said surname of Goldman and
in lieu thereof assumed and reverted to the surname of Monck which is the original surname of his family and further that such change of name is evidenced by a deed dated the 22nd day of February 1939 duly executed by the said Victor Robert Penryn Monk Monck and attested and enrolled in the Enrolment Department of the Central Office of the Royal Courts of Justice on the 23rd day of February 1939.—Dated the twenty-third day of February 1939.

WITHERS and CO., Solicitors for Victor Robert Penryn Monk Monck, formerly Victor (158) Robert Penryn Monk Goldman.

NOTICE is hereby given that PETER February 1939 duly executed by the said John Monk Monck and attested and enrolled in the
Enrolment Department of the Central Office of the Royal Courts of Justice on the 23rd day of February 1939.—Dated the twenty-third day of February 1939-  WITHERS and CO., Solicitors for John Monk Monck, formerly John Goldman Monk (159) Goldman.

Quote from: TahoeBlue on June 08, 2011, 01:31:07 PM

King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, on 5 December 1927, younger son of Their Royal Highnesses Prince Mahidol of Songkla and the Princess Mother (formerly Miss Sangwal Talapat), and is the direct grandson of His Majesty King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) and Queen Savang. His Majesty the King has one older sister, Her Royal Highness Princess Galayani Vadhana of Naradhivas, and one older brother, His Majesty the late King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII).

His Majesty became King of the Kingdom on Thailand on 9 June 1946. The Coronation Ceremony came later in 1950, after His Majesty has finalized his education in Switzerland, where he met the aristocratic Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara, who has since become HM Queen Sirikit. During that time, Siam has become Thailand, and was still unstable since the change from Absolute Monarchy to Constitutional Monarchy in 1932. The King came to the Throne after his brother's death, and was careful not to offend the military government. Since the change to Constitutional Monarchy, the people of Thailand was still in need of a King who can guide the country into prosperity.

Thailand has a very much loved Monarch in King Bhumibol Adulyadej (affectionately call as "Nai Luang" or "Chao Yu Hua" by Thai folks or referred as RAMA IX by foreigners as the Ninth Reign successor of the Chakri dynasty which began ruling of Thailand back in 1782 during the Ratthanakosin era.

Born in 5th December, 1927 and at current age approx. 80 years old, His Majesty King of Thailand had his Coronation held back in 6th May, 1950 and is the current world's longest-serving monarch in the world. However, not many people would know the King was actually born in Massachusetts, US and educated primarily in Switzerland. The King has implemented many Royally-initiated projects to look after the poor and underdeveloped remote regions in Thailand over the last few decades. He even had gave up living in luxuriously decorated Royal Palace and converted converted royal garden in the premises as a agricultural research centre. One known favorite residence of His Majesty was a simple 2 storeyed beach front wooden pavilion, Maruekatayawan Palace which is located in a small seaside town of Hua Hin. During recent years, due to old age related issues, the King is spending most of this time there
Biography of His Royal Highness Prince Mahidol Adulyadej

The university’s namesake, His Royal Highness Somdej Chao Fa Mahidol Adulyadej Kromma Luang Songkla Nakarin, formerly Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, was the father of King Ananda Mahidol and King Bhumibol Adulyadej. HRH Prince Mahidol was born on 1st January 1892, the 69th child of His Majesty King Rama V and the 7th of Queen Savang Vadhana.

Prince Mahidol was brought up according to the Royal Thai tradition, started his education at the Royal School within the Grand Palace and ordained at the age of 13 as a Buddhist novice. Before his ordination, the title of Somdej Chao Fa Mahidol Adulyadej Kromma Khun Songkla Nakarin was bestowed upon him.

He was later sent to study at Harrow, a renowned public boarding school in England, for about one year and a half.
Harrow to export tradition by opening Beijing branch -  Aug 2004

Harrow School, the alma mater of old boys from Sir Winston Churchill to Sir Mark Thatcher, is to take advantage of China's communist reforms by opening a branch in Beijing.

The school, to be operated under franchise by a Hong Kong businessman, will teach A-levels and English language from next year.

It is not the first public school to have begun operating in China - Dulwich College opened a branch in Shanghai last year and has plans for others in Beijing and Suzhou. But Harrow is the first to target local Chinese, rather than the expatriate community.

Bo Guagua - Oxford
Bo Xilai (simplified Chinese: 薄熙来; traditional Chinese: 薄熙來; pinyin: Bó Xīlái; born July 1949) is the current CPC Chongqing Committee Secretary, first-in-charge of the Western interior municipality and a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Between 2004 and November 2007 he was Minister of Commerce of the People's Republic of China.
In 1966, shortly after the Cultural Revolution was called, Bo and his family were imprisoned for five years, after which they were placed in a labour camp for another five years. After the death of Mao Zedong, in 1976, the members of the Gang of Four were officially blamed for the chaos of the Cultural Revolution, and Bo's family was released. During the ten years of their detainment Bo's father was tortured and his mother was beaten to death. According to Hong Kong based media星岛环球网),
Bo was one of the Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution
They have one son, Bo Guagua. He was the first student from mainland China to attend Harrow School for boys in the UK
[citation needed]. . Guagua was later accepted to Balliol College, Oxford, where he started studying for a PPE degree in 2006.

Yale's special "relationship" with China is long term and well documented.  

I never state China was "funded" by the U.S. - However in 1972 Mao was visited by Rockefeller setting up a line of credit for China, this preceded Nixon's trip to China which finalized the relationship...
see: In 1969, Rockefeller Official Said US Would Be De-industrialized

Document 10: Kissinger and Chase Manhattan Bank chairman David Rockefeller, 13 March 1972, 11:12 a.m.

Source: Nixon Presidential Materials Project. National Security Council Files. HAK Office Files. Box 87. PRC Personal Requests 1971-73 Kissinger telephone recording transcript

Rockefeller traveled to China, in 1973 resulting in his bank becoming the National Bank of China's first correspondent bank in the United States.
Document 10: Kissinger and Chase Manhattan Bank chairman David Rockefeller, 13 March 1972, 11:12 a.m.
Source: Nixon Presidential Materials Project. National Security Council Files. HAK Office Files. Box 87. PRC Personal Requests 1971-73

After congratulating Kissinger on some undisclosed triumph and offering him a plane ride to the next Bilderberg meeting, Rockefeller asked how he could get a visa to visit China. Kissinger was not too surprised (the president of American Express was also trying to get one) and said he would try to find out through "various channels." He assured Rockefeller that the Chinese were "less hung up on the name Rockefeller than the Russians. They don't think they're running the country."

1949:  On October 1, Mao Tse Tsung declares the founding of the People's Republic Of China in Tiananmen Square, Beijing.  He is funded by Rothschild created Communism in Russia and also the following Rothschild agents:  Solomon Adler, a former United States Treasury official who was a Soviet Spy; Israel Epstein, the son of a Jewish Bolshevik imprisoned by the Tsar in Russia for trying to forment a revolution there; and Frank Coe, a leading official of the Rothschild owned IMF

Cloak & gown: scholars in the secret war, 1939-1961 By Robin W. Winks

Yuelu Academy was founded in 976 AD (Song Dynasty), destroyed by war in 1127, and rebuilt in 1165 (Southern Song Dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi taught in at the Academy in 1165. It was destroyed by the Mongols but was restored in the late-fifteenth century (Ming Dynasty).

In 1903, it became Hunan High School. The modern day Hunan University is a descendant of the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings was restored from 1981–1986, presumably according to the Song design.

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between China and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches, and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors and later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number One Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922.

The school was destroyed during the civil war but has since been restored. The Former Office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs, and other historical items from the 1920s


More about the Peking China Medical College:
Frederick Taylor Gates (1853–1929) was an American Baptist clergyman, educator, and the principal business and philanthropic advisor to the major oil industrialist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller (Senior), from 1891 to 1923

Gates designed the China Medical Board (CMB) in 1914. Rather than viewing China through the traditional missionary lens of millions of heathens to be converted, Gates placed his faith in science. He complained the missionaries in China were trapped in the "bondage of tradition and an ignorance and misguided sentiment in the supporting churches."[4] They had made few converts and fumbled the opportunity to spread Western science
Gates planned to take over the Peking Union Medical College and retrain missionaries there. Working at the intersection of philanthropy, imperialism, big business, religion, and science, the China Medical Board was his last major project.
In 1924 Gates overreached, asking the Rockefeller Foundation Board to invest $265 million in the China Medical Board. The fantastic sum would make Chinese medical care the finest in the world, and would eliminate denominationalism influence from the practice of medicine and charity work in China. The Board refused and Gates became a victim of his own progressive emphasis on the "rule of experts;" the experts on China and medicine disagreed with him, he was marginalized and resignation from the CMB

1921 - Trustees of Peking Union Medical College. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., PUMC’s largest donor, is center (holding hat). (Source: Paul Monroe Papers, Special Collections, Columbia University, Teachers College Library)

1921 - Peking Union Medical College dedication ceremony. (Source: Paul Monroe Papers, Special Collections, Columbia University,
Teachers College Library)

"PUMC" is the acronym for "Peking Union Medical College" – founded in 1906 by the nationalist Chinese government and American and British Christian organizations. PUMC was then reorganized in 1917 by the Rockefeller Foundation to be, according to Dr. Simon Flexner, “the Johns Hopkins of China.”  

Today, Peking Union Medical College is one of China’s most selective medical colleges and technically advanced hospital systems, providing medical services to prominent political and social leaders.

Partnership to Meet the Unmet Medical Needs of Patients in China
In 1995, PUMC Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. was established as a joint venture between our parent, NHC, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), under the auspices of the Chinese Ministry of Health. Our mandate was to pioneer the development and provision of new medicines to meet the unmet medical needs of patients in China. In early 2008, we consolidated our ownership of the company, but retain our long-standing ties with China's leading regulatory and medical authorities.

When the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation began recruiting faculty members to teach at the Peking Union Medical College – an almost quixotic initiative to bring Western medical science to the Orient – standard policy was to contact American universities which were beneficiaries of Rockefeller support. Among the personal contacts was Robert J. Terry, head of the anatomy department at Washington University, whose full-time teaching position had been endowed by the petroleum dynasty’s philanthropic arm. Terry recommended Stevenson. The younger man must have seemed an ideal choice, given a Rockefeller commitment “to maintain the religious tone and work in the [Chinese] college and hospitals” – part of an agreement with the London Missionary Society, which had sold its Union Medical College in Beijing [2] to the CMB. Not only was Stevenson a recent graduate of a newly reorganized and prestigious Washington University School of Medicine, he was also an ordained clergyman with the Disciples of Christ.

Paul and June Stevenson on the deck of the Siberia Maru, en route to China, 1917

There was one substantial obstacle to Stevenson’s recruitment by the China Medical Board, namely, PUMC was not ready for him in 1917. The anatomy building in Beijing was then only in the planning stage. This problem was overcome, thanks again to the Disciples of Christ. The denomination maintained medical missions in several Chinese cities, notably in the Yangtze River valley. Its foreign missions organization agreed to co-sponsor the Stevensons and to employ Paul in one of their hospitals until his PUMC position could function. Accordingly, in the summer of 1917, the Stevensons and their two infant children departed for Shanghai. Their first lengthy stay, lasting about a year’s time, was in Nanjing, at the oldest Disciples mission in China. Here the Stevensons began intensive study of the Chinese language.

Chinese political leader Sun Yat-sen and his wife Qingling Soong, 1925 [ research -> Soong = Sassoon = British Opium trade ]

After Britain’s First Opium War (1839-1842) against China, the real power behind the Chinese Emperor was the Soong family who were agents of the House of Sassoon, Jewish multi-national opium traders originally from Baghdad who were later forced to flee to Bombay, India. They obtained exclusive rights from Great Britain to market opium to Shanghai and Hong Kong from which the queen received a healthy share of the millions of dollars of profit.

By 1890, about 10 percent of China's total population were opium smokers.[10] In 1874, attention was drawn to China’s alleged pervasive decadence by members of the Yale School of Divinity – no doubt because of all that opium.[11]

So, in 1903, a year after the Japan/Great Britain alliance, Yale Divinity School established schools and hospitals throughout China – known as Yale in China.

Sir Ellice Victor Sassoon is rooted deep in the economic past. His ancestors grew to power in the opium trade in the nineteenth century, invading every nook and corner of the Far East and becoming much involved in the opium wars that Great Britain waged on China, and out of which grew those very treaties that have made Shanghai a  consecrated spot. In the nineteenth century Sir Victor's great-grandfather, David Sassoon, transferred his headquarters from Bagdad to Bombay, and his eldest son, Albert Abdallah, was honored by Queen Victoria with a baronetcy for his contributions to India's prosperity. David's descendants include Sir Victor, the hero of this piece; Sir Philip, England's Undersecretary of State for Air; Siegfried, the able poet; and the Marchioness of Cholmondeley, friend of the British royal family.


Early in 1925, Sun came to Beijing to confer with Duan and others about the future of the country. While he was in the capital he became seriously ill and was admitted as a patient to the most advanced treatment center in the city, PUMC Hospital. He was diagnosed as suffering from advanced abdominal carcinomatosis.

By March he was dead. The disposition of Sun’s body now posed a delicate political problem for the college. Nationalists of every faction revered the deceased as a hero and there were immediate plans by the party leadership for building a gigantic mausoleum in his honor, where the embalmed body could be seen by his people, more or less like the remains of Lenin, who had died the previous year in Moscow. The embalming was assigned to Stevenson. He was required to respect rigorously the traditional Chinese taboos against removing internal organs from the body. The work was performed in a temple located between Beijing and Zhoukoudian. Stevenson had custody of the body for two years – he kept it from visible decay by immersion in mineral oil, which he regularly changed (his own pun intended) – a period during which the political struggle determined where the final resting place would be. Ultimately, following a decree of the new supreme leader, Chiang Kai-shek, Sun’s tomb was constructed at Nanjing. All parties agreed Stevenson fulfilled his assignment flawlessly – although subsequent mishandling by others in Nanjing prevented placing the body on display – and he was later to be awarded the “Order of the Blue Jade” by the Nationalist government for his work.
William H. Welch  - Welch made two trips to Asia in 1915 and 1921 as a commissioner of the China Medical Board, a subsidiary group formed by the Rockefeller Foundation to promote modern Western medicine in China.

It was on his first trip to Asia that Welch began to keep diaries. Thereafter, when he was abroad, he always recorded his daily experiences in a journal. The entries became more lengthy as he grew older.

China Medical Commission of the Rockefeller Foundation. Visit to Tsing Hua College, Peking, China, Oct. 5, 1915
Note Welsh and Flexner are pals...

China used as a testing ground:

On July 1, 1915 the recently established China Medical Board assumed full support of the Union Medical College, having previously acquired the property. The Commission's members had included both William Welch, the first Dean of the Johns Hopkins Medical School and Simon Flexner and the China Medical Board modeled the school after Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine following the recommendations of the Flexner Report which set the foundation of modern Medical Education in the United States and Canada.

The PUMC was reorganized in 1917 and celebrated its 90th anniversary with a ceremony attended by the President of Johns Hopkins University, the Chair of the China Medical Board and representatives of the Rockefeller family and Rockefeller Brothers Fund. During the "Cultural Revolution" Peking Union Medical College was re-named "Capital University of Medical Sciences".
Simon Flexner was the first director of Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research,
serving from 1902 to 1934

In 1914 he was appointed a trustee of the newest philanthropy created by John D. Rockefeller, the China Medical Board, an institution created to support the development of Western medicine in China. As the leading medical research
figure on the board, Flexner was a crucial figure in the CMB's actions for the next two decades.

Flexner traveled to China in 1915 with other CMB officials to survey Chinese medical schools. They visited Mukden, Beijing, Tientsin, Tsinanfu, Hankow, Wuchang, Changsha, Nanking, Shanghai, and Hangchow. Flexner personally made friendships during this visit that he drew on for many years thereafter, receiving his friends in New
York, referring Americans visiting China to his acquaintances, and reconnecting with them on a return visit to China in 1921.

However, the 1915 visit was momentous primarily because the CMB decided to found a new, state-of-the-art Western-style medical school in China, the Peking Union Medical College. Fully in operation by 1921, when Flexner attended its dedication, the PUMC trained two generations of Chinese students in scientific research and medicine, many of
whom were leaders in those fields in China well into the second half of the 20th century.

The interchange of staff between The Rockefeller and PUMC was substantial.

Many Rockefeller staff went to the PUMC to instruct the staff and students in the advanced techniques of modern medicine and scientific research. Van Slyke in 1922 and 1940, Cohn in 1924-25, Ten Broeck in 1926, Pearce in 1932, and Kuttnor in 1936 are important examples. Other Americans, such as Bauer and Cowdry, had their first professional appointments at PUMC and later became important figures at The Rockefeller.

Many Chinese graduate students and young physicians came to The Rockefeller to study in its laboratories. As early as 1918, before PUMC was fully in operation, Dr. Edgar Chen was conducting research at The Rockefeller in preparation for being appointed an assistant in bacteriology at PUMC. Flexner stated at this time that he would "give careful
consideration" to any Chinese student who wished to study at the Rockefeller, and indeed the archives of the university for the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s record a number of Chinese scholars arriving to work in the laboratories for six months to a year.

Those who moved between New York and Beijing campuses probably felt at home, because the architect for the buildings and landscaping of both institutions was Charles A. Coolidge of Boston, who designed many university and hospital complexes.

Regarding Jay Hopper  - Dennis Hoppers father:
Actor Director Dennis Hopper (Easy Rider, Apocalypse Now, Blue Velvet) died today at age 74. He was also, as some of you may know, an OSS lineal descendant.

His father Technical Sergeant Jay M. Hopper was an OSS medic who served in Kai Yuan, China with OSS Detachment 204.

OSS Schools and Training Branch set up a small training base there for newly arrived SO personnel in the Theater. Jay Hopper ran the camp dispensary with a contract physician named Viktor Gorchenko.

Armed with Cameras: The American Military Photographers of World War II By Peter Maslowski

Doctor Goo - Victor Goorchenko
OSS Detachments in the Far East: --
204    China, S&T Detachment base at Kai Yuan, near Kunming

It was important during World War II as a Chinese military center, American air base, and transport terminus for the Burma Road. ...
After 1949 Kunming developed rapidly into an industrial metropolis with the construction of large iron and steel and chemical complexes, along with Chongqing, Chengdu and Guiyang in the southwest...
Until Mao Zedong's death, Kunming was still generally thought in much of the rest of the country as a remote frontier settlement and so it acted as a place up to then for the government to exile people who had fallen politically out of favor, especially during the Cultural Revolution.

SACO (pronounced SOCKO), Sino-American Cooperative Organization, was a U.S. Naval Group which operated during World War II  behind Japanese lines in China.  

Some of the men who walked the seemingly endless berms around the flooded rice fields declared that they had joined a Rice Paddy Navy.  

SACO consisted of 2,964 American (Navy, Army, and Marine) servicemen, 97,000 organized Chinese guerrillas, and 20,000 “individualists” who included rival pirate groups as well as lone-wolf saboteurs.

Aided by the Chinese Government, SACO supplied the Fleet with regular weather reports from many occupied areas in the Far East by the end of 1942.  The group successfully rescued 76 downed aviators.  71,000 Japanese were killed as the result of actions by and information from SACO.

The American casualty rate was noteworthy, three were captured and only five were killed.  Unknown to most of the Americans was that each was “protected” by a Chinese, usually unseen, who considered the loss of his charge a great dishonor to his own family and ancestors.

The Rice Paddy NAVY

Half a century has passed and finally the U.S. Navy and the Chinese government feels safe in lifting the curtain from another on the “best kept” secrets of the war – a U.S. Navel Group with members serving in scores of Chinese units all over China – a united effort that produced smashing blows of the Pacific Fleet against Japanese held islands, the Japanese navy and finally, the whole of Japan.

Victor Goorchenko Russian Doctor 1990
The OSS in China

The OSS saw China both as a base of operations into Japan and as battlefield for guerilla warfare that could tie down Japanese troops from fighting elsewhere in the Pacific theater. Since the Japanese controlled Manchuria and Korea, the only regions close enough to reach Japan, the OSS concentrated on developing guerilla warfare units within the Chinese Nationalist Army of Chiang Kai-shek. This effort was hindered both by bureaucratic battles, corruption within the Nationalists, and their tendency to use their best units (and Allied supplies) to fight the Chinese Communists rather than against the Japanese.

The COI had sent representatives to China between January and May 1942, but the OSS was constantly rebuffed by the Nationalist government in Chungking. The head of the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics, the Nationalist Chinese intelligence service, was General Tai Li, who wished to maintain complete control over all clandestine activity in China. Tai Li was assisted in this endeavor by Captain M. E. Miles, the commander of US Naval Group China. In January 1943, Donovan sought to get around this by making Miles the Chief of OSS Activities in the Asiatic Theater, a nominal title that meant little to the OSS in Southeast Asia but gave Miles control of all OSS activity in China. With his new power, Miles and Tai Li created the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO) in April 1943, which officially ran all clandestine and guerilla warfare projects in China.

SACO was utterly corrupt, and it existed mainly to hinder any American intelligence activity independent of Tai Li. Tai Li’s vast spy network was geared more against the Nationalists’ domestic enemies than the Japanese; so, it fell to the OSS to focus the Nationalists on waging guerilla warfare against the foreign enemy. However, Miles had little interest in such operations, concentrating on meteorological and coastal shipping information. Whatever intelligence Miles and his Navy Group did receive was promptly cabled to the Navy Department in Washington before it was handed over to the OSS.

The OSS in SACO was left mostly at handing out hoards of supplies to Tai Li, though three camps were established after September 1943 to train the Chinese in sabotage, photography and intelligence techniques.

Finally, in December 1943, Donovan renegotiated to create Detachment 202 at Chungking, whose commander became the Strategic Services Officer, OSS/China-Burma-India, thus relieving Miles of his command over the OSS in the Far East. While Detachment 202 could operate free of Navy interference, it was still under the authority of the obstructive Tai Li.

Nevertheless, an espionage school was established in Happy Valley near Chungking in January 1944, and by April 1944, Detachment 202 had their first Chinese agents working in the field. Detachment 202 gradually developed guerilla warfare operations in China, though the impediments posed by Tai Li and the poor quality of those Chinese they were allowed to recruit kept the OSS from any effective intelligence work.

Besides SACO, the OSS also operated through the Air and Ground Forces Resources and Technical Staff (AGFRTS, or “Agfighters”) within the Fourteenth Air Force, the only American combat command operating throughout China.

Besides gathering tactical intelligence on aerial targets and rescuing downed fliers, the OSS used AGFRTS to run every kind of clandestine program in China without the interference of SACO. Through negotiations between Donovan and the commander of the Fourteenth Air Force, General Claire Chennault, R&A officers were assigned to Chennault’s staff in February 1944. AGFRTS was then activated as a unit in April 1944, headquartered in Kweilin. It continued to serve the Fourteenth Air Force until early 1945, when it was designated as a completely OSS unit and allowed to pursue intelligence beyond the air war in China.

In January 1945, the OSS in China was recognized as an agency independent of SACO and freed from the interference of Tai Li. While the Chungking base remained the seat of OSS liaison with SACO,
Detachment 202 moved their headquarters to Kunming.

Other units were created, including Detachment 203 at Chungking, to carry out R&A, SI and MO duties;
Detachment 204 at Kaiyuan to running training schools;
Detachment 205 at Dinjan, India, being the main supply base for OSS/China; and
Detachment 206 at Chengtu, focusing on X-2 operations and liaison with the 20th Bomber Command.

Field Commands were also established to send small OSS teams behind enemy lines, based at Hsian (for operations north of Yangzte River), Chihkiang (for operations south of the Yangzte River), and Szemao (for operations in Indochina). “Mercy Teams” were also created, six-man OSS units that parachuted behind enemy lines to liberate Allied POWs.

With its guerilla warfare campaign in full swing, the OSS returned to the original idea of sending agents into Japan from China. The Nationalists were not active in the north, where the Communists fought the Japanese. It was not until July 1944 that the Nationalists allowed the US to send representatives to the Communist capital in Yenan.

The DIXIE misson consisted of personnel from G-2, the State Department, Twentieth Bomber Command, the Fourteenth Air Force, the Office of War Information, and the OSS. A trade in intelligence was established and the Communists were amenable to a complete OSS training and operations program, but the Nationalists would not authorize such a measure. The DIXIE Mission was gradually withdrawn in June and July of 1945. No OSS personnel were ever sent into Japan during the war, not simply for lack of nearby airbases but also because the OSS recruited so few Asian-Americans.

China was also used as a based from which to sending agents into Siam and French Indochina. A group of Siamese students were recruited in America and trained at a base at Szemao in the southern Yunnan province of China in early 1944, though little was achieved. In the spring of 1943, Frenchmen were recruited and trained in North Africa, then sent to Chungking for infiltration into Indochina, which also produced few results. An spy network in Indochina was formed in 1942 by a cabal of American oilmen called the Gordon-Bernard-Tan Group, coming under the aegis of the OSS through AGFRTS in April 1944. Headquartered across the border in Lungchou, the GBT Group sent spies into Hanoi, Haiphong and Saigon until it was virtually eliminated during the complete Japanese takeover of Indochina in March 1945.

Near the end of the war, OSS/China consolidated its headquarters to a new base in Shanghai in September 1945. A liaison staff remained at Chungking while the rest of OSS in China returned to the United States through Kunming. Following Japan’s surrender, SO in China was dissolved, while X-2 and SI personnel were transferred to the new Strategic Services Unit (SSU) of the War Department. R&A personnel were also transferred to the SSU, although once they returned to the United States, these officers were sent to the State Department.
Spymaster: (Tai) Dai Li and the Chinese Secret Service
Dai Li and "Mary" Miles Christmas 1942

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Americans started streaming into China, some with big ideas for winning the war and access to the funds to do it. Dai had never taken well to foreigners and avoided dealing with them. Then he met a US Navy officer open to his ideas. Commander Milton E. Miles, known to history as “Mary” Miles, was the nearest thing the US Navy had to a China expert. A graduate of the Naval Academy, he had spent five years with the Asiatic fleet. In early 1942, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral King sent him to China to establish weather stations and “to heckle the Japanese.”
Dai Li took Miles on a trip into occupied China and impressed him with how easily the Juntong could operate behind Japanese lines. Before the trip was over, Dai proposed the creation of a 50,000 strong Chinese guerrilla army under Sino-American control. Without consulting Washington, Miles agreed, and the two started working on the creation of what became the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO) to carry out espionage, special operations, and signals intelligence. The Chinese would provide the manpower; the United States the rest. Dai Li would be the SACO director, Miles his deputy.
Washington’s approval of the SACO agreement required that Miles be appointed chief of OSS activities in China. OSS chief “Wild Bill” Donovan resisted the idea, but because OSS needed a Chinese base for its Asia operations, he agreed to “an unhappy alliance with Miles and Dai Li.” The OSS was admitted to China “as subordinate partners of General Dai Li’s intelligence service.” Personnel from OSS and the US Navy started arriving at Dai Li’s base, “Happy Valley,” outside Chunking to instruct Dai’s people in everything from guerrilla warfare to criminal investigation, even an “FBI school” to train Dai Li’s secret police.
There were problems from the start. Dai’s secret police were directed against Chiang’s internal enemies rather than the Japanese. There was the matter of torture: Happy Valley, which had a sanitized mess hall and western toilets for the Americans, also had “a grim prison about which unpleasant stories were told.” There was Miles, who insisted that nothing be kept secret from the Chinese; they would work directly with the Americans and everything would be shared. There was Dai Li, whose hand was seen in thwarted OSS operations. Free Thai agents being infiltrated into Thailand were delayed and several killed. Dai Li had his own plans. He would invade Thailand with a force of 10,000 Chinese guerrillas disguised as Thai—on 10,000 Tibetan ponies.
The situation was further complicated by Allied suspicions that Dai was trading secrets with Japanese intelligence. In October 1943, Donovan was ordered to gather intelligence in China’s communist-controlled areas. Donovan told Roosevelt, “We cannot do our job as an American intelligence service unless we operate as an entirely independent one, independent of the Chinese and our other allies.” The president agreed.
Donovan visited China in late 1943. Over a dinner in Dai Li’s residence, Donovan told the spymaster that OSS would work unilaterally inside China. Dai responded that he would execute any OSS agent found operating outside the SACO agreement. Donovan slammed his fist on the table and shouted, “For every one of our agents you kill, we will kill one of your generals!” The next day Donovan met with Chiang Kai-shek, who spoke of Chinese sovereignty, and asked that OSS act accordingly.

It was not until July 1944 that the Nationalists allowed the US to send representatives to the Communist capital in Yenan.

Yenan, Mao's remote headquarters in the 1940's

China vs. the US: the Turning Point (Part 2)
By Seymour Topping

In Yenan, Mao reached out to the United States for cooperation. In January 1945 Mao sent a secret message to Washington through the Dixie Mission proposing that he and Zhou Enlai, his foreign policy deputy, visit Washington for talks with President Roosevelt.'an
Yan'an (Yen-an), is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province in China, administering several counties, including Zhidan County (formerly Bao'an), which served as the Chinese communist capital before the city of Yan'an proper took that role.

Yan'an was near the endpoint of the Long March, and became the center of the Chinese communist revolution from 1936 to 1948. Chinese communists celebrate Yan'an as the birthplace of the revolution.
In December 1936, at the start of the Second United Front, Yan'an was taken over by the Chinese Communists.[1] They had arrived in the area in October 1935 after making the famous Long March from Jiangxi. When Edgar Snow went there in 1936, it was under Kuomintang control and a Red army siege had recently been lifted.[2] Unknown to him at the time, there had also been contacts there between the Communists and the generals who later staged the Xi'an Incident. Snow actually met Mao at Bao'an (Pao An).

Having rebelled against Chiang, the local warlords decided to hand over Yan'an to the Communists, who were now allies. They pulled out and the Red Army walked in without a fight. This is described by Agnes Smedley in her book Battle Hymn of China. She was in Xi'an at the time and got to Yan'an shortly after the take-over.
During the Second World War almost all buildings, except a pagoda, were destroyed by Japanese bombing, and most inhabitants took to living in yaodongs, artificial caves or dugouts carved into hillsides which were traditional dwellings in Shaanxi. While Yan'an was the center of Chinese communist life many prominent Western journalists including Edgar Snow and Anna Louise Strong  met with Mao Zedong  and other important leaders for interviews. Politically, Yan'an symbolizes for many a utopian period in modern China's history where Chinese communists sought to realize their idealized vision of life, culture, and social justice, and thus stands for a former "golden age" when communist principles and ideals were actively pursued by many sincere, youthful supporters.

During the Second World War, Yan'an played host to the United States Army Observation Group, also known as the Dixie Mission. A joint military and civilian mission, it was sent to establish official ties with the Communists and explore possible plans of cooperation against the Japanese. The Americans had a presence in Yan'an from 1944 to 1947.

Foreign reporters who interviewed Mao Zedong and Zhu De in Yan'an 1937 -  
Zhu De in Yan'an with American reporter Helen Foster Snow in May 1937.
1937 - Wales, Nym - Visited the headquarters of Chinese Communist leaders in Yenan for four months

Yenan Literary Opposition

In 1942 at the Yenan Red Army camp Mao Tse Tung used a tactic to deal with criticism that he would repeat in later years; firstly encouraging a free airing of opinion and criticism of the "cadres" and the bureaucratic regime they administered, then denouncing as reactionary those who responded with criticism. In practice this was a flushing out of dissidents so as to neutralise them. Daring to criticise the leadership led to decades of persecution for those who spoke out - and, for Wang Shi-wei, to his murder.

In 1942 in Yenan, China, where the Red Army had settled in cave dwellings at the end of their Long March retreat.

MaoTsetung fleeing Yenan'an_Rectification_Movement
The Yan'an Rectification Movement

Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), going from 1942 to 1944. The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a remote and isolated mountainous area in northern Shaanxi, after the communists' Long March.
More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture

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In accordance with the Silver Purchase Act passed by the US Congress in June 1934, the US Treasury began massive purchases of silver worldwide. Two countries were especially concerned: Mexico, at that time an important silver producer, and China whose monetary system was based on silver in spite of the fact that the country was not a substantial producer. As a result of the American purchases the price of silver tripled which was indeed one of the objectives of the Silver Act. While Mexico profited, this price increase was detrimental to China in several respects: it increased the foreign debt based on silver, it drained silver from the whole country toward the financial center of Shanghai thus bringing about a country-wide deflation and at the time a speculation frenzy lead by major banks controlled by the Nationalists.

Due to the silver shortage, the Nationlist government decided in November 1935 to nationalize silver and to issue a fiat paper money. This move emulated a similar action for gold made by the Roosevelt administration in March 1933. The issuance of such an unbacked currency eventually led to the hyper inflation of the late 1940s.

How China Was Stolen - Silver Purchase Act of 1934

In the spring of 1928, T.V. Soong (Chiang’s Triad-connected brother-in-law) forced the Shanghai banks to become dependent on high-interest "guaranteed" government bonds. Skeptical bankers were arrested. By 1932, Chinese banks located in Shanghai were stuck with between 50 per cent and 80 per cent of Nationalist government bonds.

Also in 1928 Soong founded a government "Central Bank" (patterned on the US Federal Reserve), the "State Bank of the Republic of China." Soong appointed many of the directors of private banks to a figurehead board of directors of the Central Bank. Nationalist officials who controlled the issuance of government bonds often gained seats on the boards of private banks. Just as in the US, those with inside information on Central Bank manipulations quickly became a privileged class of kleptocrats.

In June 1934 the Silver Purchase Act was passed. This Act instructed the United States Treasury to purchase silver until the world price of silver rose above $1.29 per ounce, or until the monetary value of the U.S. silver stock reached one-third the monetary value of the gold stock. (Note that this huge US government expenditure occurred at the worst time in the US Great Depression, when most ordinary Americans were struggling desperately to avoid bankruptcy).

OSS in Action: The Pacific and the Far East

US Navy's Secret war in China


(p. 47) –

White…was to investigate rumors that Detachment 101…organized by Garland Williams…was providing opium to Burmese guerrillas fighting the Japanese…the rumors were true…America’s spymasters would never sever the drug-smuggling connections they established during the war, nor could the FBN exert any influence over the situation. On the contrary, the FBN assumed a collateral role in narcotics-related espionage activities…The Luciano Project and Truth Drug programs are examples, as was the formation of the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO) by Navy Secretary Frank Knox, OSS chief William Donovan, and Chiang Kai-shek’s intelligence chief, General Tai Li. SACO would effectively put an end to any drug control over Nationalist China. SACO went into action in 1943, when a team of Americans under Treasury Agent…which included FBN agents…It was an open secret that Tai Li’s agents escorted opium caravans…and used Red Cross operations as a front for selling opium to the Japanese…he received the same immunity afforded Detachment 101.  


Shaul Eisenberg - China - Israel 
Israel has been a major, albeit covert, player in Southeast Asia since Israeli multi-billionaire tycoon Shaul Eisenberg began supplying weapons to Cambodia's genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in the 1970s. Eisenberg, a close business partner of China's military, was also an early arms supplier to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot
The Tape Worm Economy

Shaul Eisenberg - Merchant of Death

AIG's Greenberg was deeply involved in Chinese trade in the 80s with Kissinger. Greenberg was also very close to Shaul Eisenberg, the Merchant of Death who headed the Asian section of Israel’s Mossad, selling sophisticated military equipment to the Chinese Communist military. Greenberg appointed Kissinger as chairman of AIG’s International Advisory Board
China was the only country which didn’t require a visa at that time. Among the Jews who arrived were Michael Blumenthal who went on to become the US Secretary of Treasury in the Jimmy Carter administration, and businessman Shaul Eisenberg.
Shaul Eisenberg, Weapons Smuggler

Israel has been a major, albeit covert, player in Southeast Asia since Israeli multi-billionaire tycoon Shaul Eisenberg began supplying weapons to Cambodia's genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in the 1970s. Eisenberg, a close business partner of China's military, was also an early arms supplier to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot.

Eisenberg was active with Asia's Jewish community during World War II, not as an compatriot of the Allies but as a close intelligence and business partner of Japan's Imperial government, which was allied with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in the Axis Alliance.

Escaping Nazi-controlled Europe, Eisenberg settled in the Far East, making his primary bases of operation Japanese-occupied Shanghai and Japan itself.

In Shanghai, Eisenberg, along with Imperial Japanese military intelligence units, formed units of future Jewish terrorist groups -- the Irgun and the Shanghai Betar (Betar was founded in the 1930s by the Polish Zionist Yakob Jabotinsky, a supporter of Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, to battle the British for control of Palestine and the ideological godfather of later neoconservative oracle Leo Strauss).

The Japanese taught the Jewish paramilitary forces in Shanghai, including some who escaped from Joseph Stalin's Jewish Autonomous Region creation in the Soviet Far East on the Chinese border, how to disrupt colonial occupiers' logistics and command and control elements, strategies that had been successful against the British, Dutch, French, and American colonial authorities in Asia.

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Shanghai Ghetto

The Shanghai ghetto, formally known as the Restricted Sector for Stateless Refugees was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai, where about 20,000 Jewish refugees[1] were relocated to by the Japanese-issued Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees after having fled from Nazi Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, and Lithuania before and during World War II.
The International Settlement of Shanghai was established by the Treaty of Nanking. Police, jurisdiction and passport control were implemented by the foreign autonomous board. Under the Unequal Treaties between China and European countries, visas were only required to book tickets departing from Europe.

Following the Battle of Shanghai in 1937, the city was occupied by the army of Imperial Japan, and the port began to allow entry without visa or passport.

By the time when most German Jews arrived, two other Jewish communities had already settled in the city: the wealthy Baghdadi Jews, including the Kadoorie and Sassoon families, and the Russian Jews.

The last ones fled the Russian Empire because of anti-Semitic pogroms pushed by the tsarist regime and contre-revolutionary armies as well as the class struggle manifested by the Bolsheviks. They had formed the Russian community in Harbin, then the Russian community in Shanghai.
The Japanese occupiers of Shanghai regarded German Jews as "stateless persons". [13]

In 1943, the occupying Japanese army required these 18,000 Jews to relocate to a 3/4 square mile area of Shanghai's Hongkew district where many lived in group homes called "Heime" or "Little Vienna"

The ghetto was officially liberated on September 3, 1945, after some delay to allow Chiang Kai-shek's army to take political credit for the liberation of Shanghai. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and the fall of Chiang Kai-shek in 1949, almost all the Shanghai ghetto Jews left.

Partial list of notable refugees in the Restricted Sector for Stateless Refugees

Shaul Eisenberg, who founded and ran the Eisenberg Group of Companies in Israel
Calling Shaul Eisenberg
By: Christopher Bollyn (sent by Invictus) on: 26.10.2010
Shaul Nehemia Eisenberg, a highest-level Mossad chief and head of Israel Corp., Atasco, and Atwell Security, is suspected of being the chief mastermind of the false-flag terrorism of 9/11.

Eisenberg is also thought to be dead, since 27 March 1997.

Did Shaul Eisenberg, the founder of Israel Corporation, fake his death in 1997 to avoid scrutiny and prosecution for a long list of very serious crimes – including running Mossad's U.S. drug network and 9/11?

Shaul Nehemia Eisenberg worked closely with the Japanese military training Betar and Irgun terrorists during World War II.

While such a "Huck Finn" stunt may seem ludicrous, at least three other Israeli criminals who apparently faked their deaths (or coma) to avoid being arrested for serious crimes come to mind: Amiram Nir, Alexander Voronin, and Ariel Sharon. As I explain in Solving 9/11, Eisenberg owned the Mossad company called Atwell Security. Atwell tried to obtain the security contract for the World Trade Center (and Port Authority) in the late 1980s.

According to members of Eisenberg's family, now living in New York City, Shaul Eisenberg died in China on March 27, 1997. On April 1 of that year, April Fool's Day no less, the New York Times ran this paid death notice:

The Associated Press published a similar obituary for the 76-year-old "billionaire Shaul Eisenberg" who supposedly died on March 27, 1997:

JERUSALEM — Billionaire Shaul Eisenberg, a refugee from Nazi Germany who built up a global business empire, died of a heart attack yesterday during a trip to Beijing, his family said. He was 76.

Calling Shaul Eisenberg October 25, 2010

Claims by his family notwithstanding, the Israeli media, on the other hand, writes about Shaul Eisenberg as if he were still very much alive. Globes, an Israeli business news source, for example, published two articles in the spring of 2010 that indicated that Eisenberg was alive:

Ogen Yielding Real Estate Ltd. (TASE:OGEN) is expanding the BMC Software complex in Tel Aviv's Ramat Hahayal high-tech zone. Ogen will add ten floors to the seven-floor Building C at an investment of NIS 70 million. Construction has already begun and is scheduled to be completed by December 2011...Shaul Eisenberg controls Ogen through Isralom Ltd. subsidiary Ocif Investments and Development Ltd. (TASE: OCIF).
- Michal Margalit in Globes, June 6, 2010

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Eisenberg in TIME Magazine in 2008:,9171,1825136,00.html


At a formal dinner in a Beijing hotel last week, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin toasted a rotund 72-year-old at the table and offered a tribute: ''Mr. Eisenberg opened the doors to China for Israel.'' It was a rare moment in the public spotlight for Israeli tycoon Shoul Eisenberg, but senior officials at the dinner knew exactly what Rabin meant.

Modern weaponry is at the heart of the Jerusalem-Beijing relationship, and Eisenberg has been selling Israeli defense technology to the Chinese for more than a decade. Eisenberg is the real-life version of the international power brokers who appear in the pages of popular thrillers, and he is usually described with some of the same adjectives: shadowy, reclusive, discreet. Worth an estimated $1.3 billion, he is a legendary figure in Asia, a modern taipan. His holdings include all or part of hundreds of companies in 30 countries
Calling Eisenberg an arms dealer does not do justice to the scale and astonishing variety of his operations. He may have handled Israel's military sales to China, but at the same time he was completing hundreds of other deals
By coincidence,CIA Director R. James Woolsey had just reported to a congressional committee in Washington that the value of Israel's military sales to China over the past 10 years ''may be several billion dollars.''
as early as December 1978, Eisenberg was in China sizing up business opportunities. According to a senior aide to Menachem Begin, Eisenberg paid a call on the then Prime Minister and said that he could use his influence to open China to Israeli goods -- mostly military -- if Begin would give him exclusive rights to all weapons deals. It was a time when China was looking for first-rate military technology that it could not obtain from the West.
Since 1979, Israeli security officials say, the country has sold China $3.5 billion worth of arms components and technology -- not finished weapons, but parts and processes to improve China's tank guns, armor and targeting systems, missiles, aircraft electronics and military computers, among other things
Eisenberg followed [to China] in 1940 but found no business opportunities in China that time around. So he sailed for Japan, thinking he might make it to the U.S. But in Japan he met a family active in the steel business and began selling iron ore principally to their company, Nippon Steel. A year later, he married Leah Freudlsberger, whose father was an art lecturer at a Tokyo university and whose mother was from a distinguished Japanese family. When the war ended, Eisenberg's fortunes took off.
Today the Eisenberg Group, with 40 offices around the world, is divided into two main holding companies -- the Israel Corp. and Panama-registered United Development Inc

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Shaul Eisenberg - Permindex - Red China Nuclear Program

Quote: Evidence suggests that "Red China's" first explosion of a nuclear device was in fact a joint venture between Israel and Red China.

Kissinger and Ford's long-time Michigan financial backer, industrialist Max Fisher were both financially and ideologically linked to Eisenberg

Max Fisher - Eisenberg and the JFK Assassination:
Final Judgment

The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History

Henry Burton Sharman ->>  Jesus as teacher Canadian Missionaries to China -->>  James Gareth Endicott -- >>  Zhou Enlai -->> OSS Dixie Mission? -->> Japan Unit 731 --->>> BioWarfare Korea --->  Frank Olson BioWarfare and Chemical Warfare -  Fort Dietrick - LSD
Professor Stephen L. Endicott from York University Visited Sichuan University

Accompanied by Vice-President Shi Jian and the staff member of International Affairs, Sichuan University, Professor Stephen L. Endicott from York University, his family and Professor Andy Cragg fromThe Frost Centre of Trent University, Canada visited School of Foreign Languages of Sichuan University on August 12, 2011. In spite of eighteen four years old, Professor Endicott and his family spent nearly two hours in the meeting room of the School talking about cultural exchanges between Canada and China including Sichuan Province, donate towards Canadian Studies Center, Sichuan University some valuable books and compact disks. On behalf of the Center’s James G. Endicott Research Group, Professor Zhao Yi gave thanks to Professor Endicott for his valuable presents.
Professor Endicott introduced the impressions he had got from visiting Leshan City where his farther James G. Endicott was born. He also met with Professor Luo Xianhua, Professor Zhou Kaiwan and Professor Ye Shangwei who translated in Chinese the book James G. Endicott: Rebel out of China written by Professor Endicott. At last he talked genially with Professor Lin Biguo, Professor Zhang Changgui, Professor Ao Fan and other colleagues and friends at the School of Foreign Languages.
Professor Endicott’s farther James G. Endicott was born in Leshan, Sichuan Province and moved back to Canada with his parents at the age of two. In 1925 when he was seventeen years old, James G. Endicott was sent back to Chongqing, Sichuan as a missionary by United Church of Canada. In 1940 he was appointed as a political consulter of Chiang Kai-shek government and a social advisor of “New Life Movement” initiated by Madame Chiang Kai-shek.

Between 1944 and 1945 James G. Endicott first contacted Communist Party Leader Zhou Enlai and Dong BIwu etc. in conducting as a liaison between American military representatives and Communist Party for the war effort against Japan troops.

After the anti-Japanese War ended, he launched a English Shanghai Newsletter to propagandize Chinese Communist Party against Kiang Kai-shek government. It was for this reason James G. Endicott was reproached as “public enemy number one” by the United Church authority after he went back to Canada in 1947.
Endicott was impressed by the Communists and became friends with Zhou Enlai as the Chinese Civil War resumed, and he became a supporter of the Chinese Communist Party. During the war he provided an underground network where pro-communist forces could meet and exchange ideas

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H. B. Sharman (Henry Burton, 1865–1953) devoted his life to educating others[1] about the life and teaching of Jesus.
Henry Burton Sharman was born 12 August 1865, in Stratford, Ontario, the eldest of eleven children
Many of his students went on to lead groups in universities and retreat centers. Groups that carried on his seminar method included Pendle Hill, Sequoia Seminars, and the Guild for Psychological Studies [1]. Among his

Canadian students who were influential were the controversial missionaries to China, the Endicotts, James Gareth Endicott[8] and his wife Shirley,[9] and Murial Duckworth, the tireless peace activist.[10]

He was also influential in the life and teaching of his famous Unitarian sister-in-law, Sophia Lyon Fahs.[11] One sociological study of Sharman's influence made much of a split in his students that occurred in the late 1940s and continued after his death, some focusing on transformation of the individual, and others the transformation of society.[12]

In addition to Records of the Life of Jesus, Sharman published
Studies in the Life of Christ (1896);
The Teachings of Jesus about the Future, according to the Synoptic Gospels (1909);
Jesus in the Records (1918); Jesus as Teacher (1935);
Studies in the Records of the Life of Jesus (1938);
Son of Man and Kingdom of God: A Critical Study (1943) and Paul as Experient (1945),
he also supervised the translation of some of his works into Chinese and Japanese.

All are currently out of print, except for Records of the Life of Jesus, which has been reprinted by the Guild for Psychological Studies.

Sharman's original version used the English Revised Version of the gospel text, published in 1881.
In 1991, the Guild for Psychological Studies published a new edition, based on the Revised Standard Version.

Jesus as teacher [microform] ([c1935])

It is very interesting to look at James Gareth Endicott:
James Gareth Endicott

Endicott was born in Szechuan Province, China, the third of five children to a Methodist missionary family and became fluent in Chinese.[1] His family returned to Canada in 1910. His father, James Endicott, was elected the second Moderator of the United Church of Canada from 1926 to 1928.

Endicott enlisted in World War I as a Private.[1] After the war he was educated at the University of Toronto's Victoria College where he was president of the student council and a founder of the university's Student Christian Movement.[1]

Endicott earned a Masters degree and was ordained as a minister in the United Church of Canada. In 1925, Endicott returned to China as a missionary remaining there for most of the following two decades.

Missionary in China
Endicott taught English in China and became professor of English and Ethics at West China Union University. He became social advisor to Chiang Kai-shek and political advisor to his New Life Movement and served as an advisor to US military intelligence from 1944 to 1945 as a liaison between the American military and the Chinese Communist forces fighting against the Japanese in World War II .

Initially a supporter of Chiang Kaishek and his wife, he once compared Chiang to Abraham Lincoln and described Madame Chiang as a combination of Helen of Troy, Florence Nightingale and Joan of Arc.[1] He became disillusioned after seeing Chiang's officers starve their troops and by the Kuomintang's corruption.[1]

Endicott was impressed by the Communists and became friends with Zhou Enlai as the Chinese Civil War resumed, and he became a supporter of the Chinese Communist Party. During the war he provided an underground network where pro-communist forces could meet and exchange ideas . [2]

After the war, he spoke at student demonstrations, urging opposition to the Nationalist government and provoking criticism from the church in Canada. This led to his resignation from the ministry and the mission on May 5, 1946 after the United Church of Canada gave him an ultimatum to either modify his public statements or quit.[1] At Zhou En-lai's urging, he moved to Shanghai to publish the underground anti-Kuomintang Shanghai Newsletter. The newsletter was aimed at westerners in the Kuomintang stronghold as well as at trying to convince western governments that Chiang's regime was corrupt and dictatorial.

Return to Canada

In 1947, he returned to Canada. At a time when western countries were backing Chiang and were optimistic about his government, Endicott advised the Canadian government that the Kuomintang regime's fall was imminent and then went public with his predictions and his denunciation of the Kuomintang as corrupt. His comments were denounced as traitorous by the media and he was labelled the most reviled Canadian of the year for his support of the Chinese Revolution and the Communist Party of China and was criticized by the United Church for his support of the revolution.

He continued his support for the Chinese Communist Party by giving lectures and publishing the Canadian Far Eastern Weekly which had 5,000 subscribers at its peak.

Canadian Peace Congress
In 1949, he founded and became chairman of the Canadian Peace Congress and helped publish its Peace Letter bulletin. He also became a senior figure in the World Peace Council serving as president of the International Institute for Peace from 1957 until 1971.

In 1950, as a Canadian delegate to the World Peace Council in Stockholm, Endicott sat on the committee that drafted the Stockholm Peace Appeal which was the petition that began the international "Ban the Bomb" movement

Korean War
Endicott returned on a visit to China in 1952, during the Korean War and, on his return to Canada, charged the United States with using chemical and biological weapons during the war. His charges led him to be vilified in the Canadian press as "public enemy number one" and he was censured by the United Church for his support of Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communists.[1]
The government threatened to charge him with treason and sedition, but did not follow through, while others called for him to lose his passport and mailing privileges.[1][4]

Later work
Endicott was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1952 for his efforts working for "peaceful coexistence between the Christians and the Communists."

He continued his advocacy for the People's Republic of China by publishing the Canadian Far East Newsletter and though he publicly backed the Soviet Union in the initial years of the Sino-Soviet split he was sympathetic to China's arguments and reported them in the newsletter. Endicott was offered the presidency of the World Peace Council in the early 1960s but declined due to his wife's declining health and what he anticipated as a personally untenable position of leading the council during a period of growing tensions between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China and their respective factions on the council.

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Update:  Did the U.S. use Biological Warfare in Korea and how that ties in with the Sequoia Seminars:

United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets From the Early Cold War and Korea, The
By Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman

One of the more sensational events of the early Cold War in Canada was the allegation by the Reverend James G. Endicott that the United States had resorted to germ warfare in pursuing the war in Korea under the banner of the United Nations.

This allegation, made in the early months of 1952, based on Endicott's observations in Northeast China and reports from the Chinese, was quickly dismissed by the Canadian government and efforts were made to discredit Endicott's charges and to undermine his credibility. Resorting to the method, later known as "plausible denial," the Canadian and American governments heaped scorn on the man who was seen as no more than a mouthpiece for the Red China regime.
Endicott, however, never gave up, drawing closer and closer to proving his allegations. Later revelations that the United States had taken over Japanese biological experiments, along with the Japanese scientists who conducted them provided more hard evidence. Only his death in his late nineties prevented Endicott from completing the picture.

The complete (or nearly complete) picture has now been drawn by two scholars from York University, utilizing recently declassified materials from American, Canadian, and British government archives, along with documents from the Chinese Central Archives.

Stephen Endicott (son of the aforementioned Reverend James G.) and Edward Hagerman have done a masterful job in marshalling the evidence and providing the arguments to make the case for the charge that the United States indulged in biological (bacteriological, germ) warfare under the umbrella of the Korean War.

After using atomic weapons in Asia, in hindsight, it seems hardly a deviation for the United States to experiment with biological weapons less than a decade later, and to move on to agent orange, napalm and other devices (including — alleged — biological weapons) in Vietnam in the `60's. In preaching its "higher" standards of behavior to Asians, the West has always been blessed with a shortness of memory.

The United States and Biological Warfare is replete with photos and documents, such that it is difficult not to join with the authors in their summation that the covert planning of the Strategic Air Command for the delivery of bacteriological weapons, along with pressures to widen the Korean War combined with the "circumstantial evidence from the United States, Canada, Australia, Korea, and China," lead "to the conclusion that the United States took the final step and secretly experimented with biological weapons in the Korean War."

Their book is one that deserves wide discussion, not only for what it tells us about how governments deliberately misinform and mislead their citizens, while sacrificing the rights of individuals, but for what it means in the history of Western (American) relations with Eastern Asia.
Dirty little secrets  
Al Jazeera investigates claims that the US used germ warfare during the Korean War.
Diarmuid Jeffreys Last Modified: 04 Apr 2010 11:25 GMT  

Youtube - BIO Warfare in Korea - Unit 731 - Fort Deitrick
North Korea alleges that the US used biological weapons against Korean civilians during the war– dropping "germ" bombs containing insects, shellfish and feathers infected with anthrax, typhoid and bubonic plague on villages across the country.

The US has always vehemently denied these claims, dismissing them as crude and outlandish communist propaganda from a secretive and totalitarian state.

Nevertheless, the accusations have refused to go away. Pyongyang continues to press for an apology for an "outrage" that the US insists never happened

A Twenty Year Mystery

In a specially extended edition, People & Power set out to investigate this extraordinary story.

Our journey began in North Korea where we were given unprecedented access to follow a leading Japanese academic, Professor Mori Masataka, who has been trying to unravel the mystery for the last twenty years.

On this, his fourth visit to the country, Mori's intention was to talk to men who claim to have witnessed, first hand, biological attacks on villages in 1952.

But neither he nor People & Power's location producer, Tim Tate, were under any illusions.

North Korea is one of the world's most secretive states and is usually impenetrable to journalists. Everywhere our cameras went, government officials went too, strictly monitoring where and what we could film.

In a vast museum in the centre of Pyongyang, Mori explored a room given over to what the North Koreans claim is direct evidence of US germ warfare – including specimen jars filled with flies, mosquitoes and fleas all allegedly injected with deadly pathogens.

A smartly uniformed army officer, Captain Ryu Uk Hui, drew his attention to some salvaged bomb casings.

On impact, she said, they were adapted to split open and release the insects to infect the local population. A film-show followed.

The grainy black and white footage, purportedly North Korean news film from 1952, appeared to show masses of insects crawling on the snow covered ground beside the bomb casings.

All this could have been phony, of course, and that is how the US has always responded to such claims, especially to filmed "confessions" from 36 captured US airmen - also screened in Pyongyang's museum - in which they give the North Koreans apparently detailed accounts of their participation in the US "germ" raids.

Accounts that, it must be said, were all retracted on the air crews' return home to the US after the war.
Later, we are driven deep into the North Korean countryside, to a village called Hwanjin, where two elderly farmers are patiently waiting.

It is clear they have been tidied up for the occasion and both wore patriotic badges pinned to their tunics, yet their weathered faces, calloused hands and still grimy fingernails speak of long years spent in the fields.

Although it is impossible to be sure, neither seems to be a Communist Party apparatchik primed for the occasion. And one speaks with convincing passion about the events that took the life of his father and many others, in the days after the insects came.
"It was in March", says Yun Chang Bin. "The flies were big and their colour was brown-ish.

"Not long after that, about April, terrible epidemics like typhoid fever were spread. People in the village developed high temperatures. Loss of appetite and then aches on the arms and legs, there was much pain."

There were some 50 households in the village, he went on, and more than thirty people died.

"My father died. He suffered a high fever, and then he was not able to use the lower half of his body, he wasn't able to eat and was not able to move."

As his fellow farmer nods encouragingly beside him, Yun Chang Bin looks directly at Professor Mori.

"I want you to go and tell the peace-loving people in the world about the atrocity the Americans committed to inflict pain to us, to make us unhappy, to kill all us Korean people, by scattering germ bombs to exterminate us."  
But however convincing he has found these accounts, Mori knows that testimony from North Korean citizens will not be enough to convince a sceptical world that the US used germ warfare in Korea.

"A scientific investigation or medical or biological investigation should be carried out. I think it is definitely necessary that a non-political purely-scientific organisation should be sent to North Korea to investigate", Mori says.

As it happens, within months of the original allegations being made back in the 1950s, North Korea invited an international commission to visit the country.

International commission

Composed of scientists from France, Italy, Sweden, the Soviet Union and Brazil, and led by Joseph Needham, a distinguished - if left-leaning - British embryologist, the commission toured the affected areas, interviewed the sick and the dying and carried out a detailed analysis of their infections.

The resulting 600-page report included results of post-mortem on the victims: these identified bubonic plague, cholera and anthrax.

It concluded that germ warfare had been deployed exactly as the North Koreans claimed. Yet despite its apparent wealth of scientific evidence, it was again dismissed by the US as communist disinformation.

Which is why, if a new international enquiry was ever undertaken, it would have to spread its net far further than North Korea and to the US, in particular, where the truth almost certainly lies, buried deep in the Cold War secrets of a superpower.

 was there that People & Power discovered that during the 1940s and 1950s American scientists at the US Army base in Fort Detrick, Maryland, had developed ways of delivering bomb-loads of insects infected with bubonic plague and other deadly pathogens.

Our investigations also uncovered two remarkable documents in the US National Archives.

Unit 731

They revealed that the US had bought the expertise of Unit 731, a Japanese army biological warfare team, which conducted human experiments in the 1930s and 1940s to perfect the technology of bacteriological warfare: in World War 2, the Japanese military had dropped thousands of "germ bombs" across Northern China, killing millions of civilians.
A third crucial document - marked "Top Secret" - showed that in September 1951, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff issued orders to begin "large scale field tests ... to determine the effectiveness of specific BW [bacteriological warfare] agents under operational conditions."

If these "field tests" were indeed undertaken, then they may have drawn again on the expertise of the Japanese biological warfare team.

In Japan, People & Power found home video footage from one of the former members of that team, shot just before his death, in which he claimed that its leaders had indeed assisted the US in mounting "an attack" in Korea.

But perhaps the most telling evidence came from a former US air force officer who took part in bombing raids over North Korea.

Kenneth Enoch was shot down in January 1952 and held as a POW for 20 months.


While in captivity, he was one of 36 US air force officers who made written and filmed "confessions" that they had taken part in "germ bomb" missions.  

When these POWs were repatriated in 1953, the US department of defence threatened to charge them with treason for co-operating with their captors.

Each then retracted their confessions in front of military cameras: each claimed they had been tortured or indoctrinated by North Korean and Chinese guards.
But when we tracked down and interviewed Enoch, now a sprightly 85 and living in a gated retirement community in Texas, he denied having been ill-treated or indoctrinated – and appeared to make at least a partial admission that the US did use biological weapons in the Korean War.  

"The people who deal in that don't have to go and fight, and that's a pretty sweet deal for them. You know, but they send it with you," he said. Nevertheless, he continued to deny that he personally played any part in biological weapons attacks.

Records of Enoch's bombing missions over North Korea were removed by US air force investigators from the official records in March 1952 – two months after he was captured and one week before he made his confession to "germ warfare".  

People & Power asked both the US state department and the department of defence for an interview about the issue raised in our film.

They turned down the offer and also declined to answer ten specific questions we put to them about North Korea's allegations

At one point, Enoch said his statements had been coerced by the North Koreans

So who is to be believed? Professor Mori Masataka, thinks he knows the answer. "Use of germ weapons in war is in breach of the Geneva Convention. I think that's why the Americans are refusing to admit the allegations. But I have no doubt. I'm absolutely sure that this happened."

The clear implication, of course, is that were North Korea's claims ever to be proved, the US might be open to prosecution for war crimes – which would be awkward, to say the least, at a time when the US is relying on its moral authority to underpin international efforts to combat global terrorism and nuclear proliferation.

Either way, one thing is clear. Until the allegations are laid to rest and the US's innocence or culpability is established beyond doubt - perhaps by an independent enquiry – one of the most enduring Cold War mysteries will continue to haunt Washington's relationship with the world's most secretive state.

This episode of People & Power aired from Wednesday, March 10, 2010.

\ - - - - -

Ok - But what does all this have to do with LSD? You ask .... Frank Olson
TV film on death of Frank Olson
German documentary charges US used biological weapons in Korean War
By Peter Schwarz
13 November 2002

The claim by the Bush administration that Baghdad is threatening the world with weapons of mass destruction is the main pretext for its war preparations against Iraq. However, a documentary recently broadcast by the German state television channel, ARD, suggests that the US government is itself hiding biological warfare programs from the rest of the world, and actually employed such weapons in 1952 during the Korean War.

The documentary, entitled Codename Artichoke—the Secret Human Experiments of the CIA, was aired by ARD last August. A book with the same title was published shortly afterwards. The authors of both the film and the book, TV journalists Edmond R. Koch and Michael Wech, focus on the case of biochemist Dr. Frank Olson, who died on November 28, 1953 after a mysterious fall from the 13th floor of the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City.

At the time of his death, Olson had been given the highest clearance for access to classified information. He was one of the leading scientists doing research in the field of biological weapons, and had been working for ten years in the biological warfare facilities at Maryland’s Camp Detrick (today, Fort Detrick) near Washington DC.

He also occupied a leading position in “Operation Artichoke,” a CIA program that coordinated all projects of the Army, Navy and CIA involving psychedelic drugs, fatal poisons and similar substances. Those involved in this project included German doctors who had experimented with human beings in the Nazi concentration camps.

Artichoke involved the use of torture and drugs to interrogate people. The effects of substances such as LSD, heroin and marijuana were studied, using unsuspecting individuals as human guinea pigs. The CIA was eager to identify military uses for substances that altered the psyche. The agency was at that time obsessed with the idea that the Soviets or the Chinese might employ methods of brainwashing to recruit double agents or manipulate the population of entire nations.

Artichoke also included the development of poisons that take effect immediately. These substances were later used in attempts on the lives of a number of foreign leaders, e.g., Abdul Karim Kassem (Iraq), Patrice Lumumba (Congo), and Fidel Castro (Cuba).

Before Frank Olson plunged to his death from a window of the Hotel Pennsylvania in 1953, he exhibited symptoms of behavioural disturbance. Friends, family members and colleagues shown in the film and quoted in the book assume that he had seen things that he felt went too far, and intended to quit his work with the CIA. Prior to his death he had seen a psychiatrist on several occasions, always in the company of a CIA watchdog. He died one day before he was scheduled to be committed to a psychiatric hospital.

Olson’s death was officially described as suicide due to depression. Only in the mid-1970s, when the CIA’s secret activities were scrutinised in the wake of the Watergate scandal, did the government admit to a certain degree of responsibility: Ten days before his death, the CIA had administered LSD to Olson without his knowledge. President Gerald Ford subsequently apologised to the family, and the CIA paid compensation to his widow.

According to the documentary, this was a further cover-up operation. The film presents evidence suggesting that the death of the biochemical expert was not suicide, but murder.

Frank Olson’s son, Eric, is convinced that his father was assassinated. He has been trying for decades to clear up the circumstances of his father’s death, and has gathered numerous pieces of evidence supporting the thesis of murder, which he made available to the authors of Codename Artichoke.

In 1994 Eric Olson had his father’s body exhumed and examined by a renowned forensic scientist, who concluded that in all probability someone had knocked Frank Olson unconscious in the hotel room and thrown him out of the window, in contrast to the official version, which claimed Olson had jumped.

After the report on the post-mortem had been published, the public prosecutor’s office in Manhattan initiated proceedings against an unknown person. However, the prosecutor lost interest as soon as the CIA intervened into the questioning of the main witness, the CIA agent Robert Lashbrook, who had accompanied Olson continuously prior to his death and had been in the hotel room when Olson fell out of the window.

A memorandum dated July 11, 1975 and printed in the book strongly indicates that the CIA has something to hide. Addressed to the White House chief of staff, the memo urgently recommended an official apology by the president so as to forestall any trial or official hearing on the Olson case. Otherwise, the memo said, “it might be necessary to disclose highly classified national security information.” Ten days later President Ford met with the Olson family in the White House.

The addressee and the author of this memo are still active and hold prominent positions in government. The former is Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld, who was then White House chief of staff, and the latter is Vice President Dick Cheney, who was then Rumsfeld’s deputy.

The following year, after delays in the payment of the promised compensation to the family, another well-known political figure intervened: then-CIA Director George Bush, who himself went on to become US president and whose son is George W. Bush.

Why the cover-up?

In the mid-1970s, Cheney, Rumsfeld and Bush senior collaborated to prevent a thorough investigation into Olson’s death, because they feared that it might “disclose highly classified national security information.” What information?

The authors of the documentary have traced numerous clues, but given the mass of multifaceted evidence presented, it is often difficult to distinguish fact from fiction. Olson undoubtedly knew about many things that would have discredited the US administration, and it is entirely plausible that the government sought to silence him.

The authors describe how German physicians who had worked in Nazi concentration camps were rapidly rehabilitated after the war through the US denazification program and put to work on US research projects on biological and chemical warfare. The book also notes that Olson and his colleagues carried out large-scale field experiments with biological weapons. In one case they spread a certain bacillus—which they regarded as harmless—across San Francisco Bay, as a dress rehearsal for a major biological attack on a large city.

Both genuine and alleged enemy agents were subjected to horrifying interrogations, some of which Olson must have witnessed personally, the authors conclude. In some cases these interrogations led to the death of the accused. The most convincing proof of this is a telegram from 1954, in which the CIA director inquires about “bodies available for terminal experiments.”

In addition, thousands of people were used, without their knowledge or consent, for experiments with LSD, mescaline, morphine, seconal, atropine and other drugs. The CIA even ran its own brothels in order to lure its victims. As the inspector general of the US Army later stated in a report to a Senate committee: “In universities, hospitals and research institutions” an “unknown number of chemical tests and experiments ... were carried out with healthy adults, with mentally ill and with prison inmates.”

Most of these activities were exposed in the 1970s, when two commissions appointed by Congress—the Rockefeller and the Church commissions—investigated the secret activities of the CIA. A further investigation was published by John Marks, a former employee of the State Department. After legal proceedings based on the Freedom of Information Act, Marks gained access to several thousand pages of classified CIA material. This material is utilised extensively in the documentary.

In 1969 the US officially cancelled all research programs on biological weapons. Fort Detrick was closed down. Today the site is used by the US Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), which, according to the official line, strictly limits itself to the analysis of biological weapons for defence purposes. In 1974, the US signed onto the international convention against biological warfare.

Were biological weapons used in Korea?

There must be reasons for the continuing secrecy surrounding Olson’s death that go beyond the facts which surfaced in the 1970s. One possible reason is linked to Korea—and to last year’s anthrax attacks against leading politicians of the Democratic Party and others that cost the lives of five people.

During the Korean War, both Pyongyang and Beijing repeatedly accused the US of employing bacteriological weapons. These accusations were supported by eyewitness reports, photos, laboratory analyses and the remains of biological bombs.

In 1952, two international commissions which examined the war area with Soviet and Chinese help concluded that the US army had indeed used such weapons. This was confirmed in written statements by US pilots who were held prisoner by Korea. Some of them appeared before the international press and repeated their confessions.

The US categorically denied these accusations, describing the evidence presented as forged, characterising the international commissions as instruments of communist propaganda, and claiming that the soldiers’ confessions were the result of “brainwashing.” Allen W. Dulles, the CIA director, even gave a speech devoted to brainwashing, in which he accused North Korea of “having turned around a whole number of our boys.”

When the prisoners of war who had made these confessions returned from Korea in the summer of 1953, they were interrogated by the Artichoke team, which had announced its eagerness to do so weeks in advance. In a memorandum to the top leadership of the CIA, the team said it wanted to use those “who have been exposed to and accepted in varying degrees Communist indoctrination ... as unique research material in the Artichoke work.” Among other things, hypnosis, anaesthetics and LSD were to be used on the former POWs. In this way, Artichoke hoped to gain insight into the enemy’s interrogation methods and to make sure that the returned soldiers did not work for the other side.

Koch and Wech, however, believe that Artichoke’s main concern was the confessions of the Air Force pilots. The authors suspect that they contained at least some true revelations.

The authors ask: “Was their will to be broken with LSD? Were they to be subjected to artificial amnesia to make them forget what they saw and did? Biological warfare? Experiments with anthrax and other deadly epidemics?”

Frank Olson probably witnessed some interrogations of soldiers returning from Korea. This is the conclusion drawn by the authors from a careful reconstruction of his travels. As the leading expert on the release of biological weapons, he must have known about the use of such devices if and when they were actually employed. Was this first-hand knowledge the ultimate reason for his demise? Did the CIA silence him when it became clear he was seeking to distance himself from the agency?

This suspicion is given credence by a reliable witness, Norman Cournoyer. In the early years of Camp Detrick, Cournoyer had worked closely with Frank Olson, and remained his best friend until the end. He knew about Olson’s intention to leave the CIA.

In April 2001, Cournoyer, who had read an article about the case in the New York Times Magazine, contacted Eric Olson and said he would tell him the truth about his father’s death. “Korea is the key,” he is quoted as saying.

The authors continue: “And then Norman Cournoyer confirmed that the American Air Force had indeed tested biological weapons during the Korean War.” Frank Olson had learned about this and began to despair about what he was doing. In conclusion, Cournoyer said: “Was this the reason for the CIA to kill your father? Probably.”

According to Eric Olson, this statement is in line with remarks of his mother, who used to say: “Your father was always worried about Korea.”

According to Koch and Wech, there is a direct connection between the cover-up of the Olson case and the sluggish investigations into the anthrax attacks of October 2001. Last year’s attempts on the lives of two high-ranking representatives of the American state have not been cleared up to this day. Despite the fact that all evidence points to Fort Detrick and one possible perpetrator is known by name, the investigation has plodded along without any suspects being identified by the government.

A serious probe into either Olson’s death or the recent anthrax attacks, the authors believe, could bring to light things that would severely damage the credibility of the United States. They suspect that the anthrax attacker’s knowledge of certain facts makes it impossible for the FBI to lay hands on him.

The authors suggest that this knowledge relates to secret biological warfare programs. They ask, “Is it conceivable that the US army carried out further research on biological weapons in spite of binding international treaties, even after the official termination of offensive projects involving biological weaponry in 1969?” They then charge that there are “very concrete indications that the Pentagon does not give a damn about international agreements on biological warfare.”

They cite several such indications: the production of a genetically improved version of the anthrax bacterium, which was reported by the New York Times on September 11, 2001; the plans by military institutes to develop new microbes that are able to dissolve certain materials; and the consistent refusal of the Bush administration to sign a supplementary protocol to the international convention on biological weapons that would give teams of United Nations experts access to American military laboratories. In the course of the negotiations in Geneva, according to the authors, it became known that Secretary of Defence Rumsfeld wanted at all costs to prevent any such inspections.

* * *

Codename Artichoke—the Secret Human Experiments of the CIA is available in German only from C. Bertelssmann Verlag, Munich.
 Secret Human Experiments of the CIA  


Sir Ellice Victor Sassoon is rooted deep in the economic past. His ancestors grew to power in the opium trade in the nineteenth century, invading every nook and corner of the Far East and becoming much involved in the opium wars that Great Britain waged on China, and out of which grew those very treaties that have made Shanghai a  consecrated spot. In the nineteenth century Sir Victor's great-grandfather, David Sassoon, transferred his headquarters from Bagdad to Bombay, and his eldest son, Albert Abdallah, was honored by Queen Victoria with a baronetcy for his contributions to India's prosperity. David's descendants include Sir Victor, the hero of this piece; Sir Philip, England's Undersecretary of State for Air; Siegfried, the able poet; and the Marchioness of Cholmondeley, friend of the British royal family.

Legend of the Sassoons  ...  David Sassoon set up the Sassoon company in Bombay, India, in 1833.

In 1844, he set up a branch in Hong Kong, and a year later, he set up his Shanghai branch on the Bund to cash in on the opium trade.
At that time, about one-fifth of all opium brought into China was shipped on the Sassoon fleet. They brought China opium and British textile and took away silk, tea and silver.

Sir Victor Sassoon, a Most Fortunate Expat,_7th_Marquess_of_Cholmondeley

David George Philip Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, KCVO, DL ( /ˈtʃʌmli/; born 27 June 1960), was styled from birth Viscount Malpas until 1968, and subsequently Earl of Rocksavage until 1990.

He is a British peer and is the current Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom, as a 14-partite holder of that office.[1]

Lord Cholmondeley is a direct descendant of Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. He is the son of Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley and his wife, the former Lavinia Margaret Leslie.[2]

He is also a direct descendent of both the Rothschild family and the Sassoon family.[3] He has three elder sisters, the Ladies Rose, Margot (married Tony Huston), and Caroline (married Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger).

[ I've noticed that the Rothschild's tend to bear twins? hmm... ]

The announcement that she was expecting twins, was revealed by Richard Kay of The Daily Mail[5] and Mandrake of the Daily Telegraph. On 12 October 2009, the Marchioness gave birth to twin sons, Alexander Hugh George and Oliver Timothy George,[6][7] who were originally expected in January.
The family seats are Houghton Hall, Norfolk, and Cholmondeley Castle, which is surrounded by a 7,500 acres (30 km2) estate near Malpas, Cheshire.[10]
According to the Sunday Times Rich List, Cholmondeley is considered to be amongst the wealthy with an estimated net-worth of approximately £60m, attributed primarily to his inherited land-holdings.[11] Houghton Hall, ancestral home of the Marquess of Cholmondeley since the establishment of the title in 1815, has now opened some of its rooms to the public.
The Marque gives the Queen hummers...

Cholmondeley began acting as the hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain to Her Majesty in 1990.[1] In the Queen's Birthday Honours List for 2007, Lord Cholmondeley was made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO) for his 17 years' service as Lord Great Chamberlain
Singapore's 40 Richest - #36 Victor Sassoon

Net Worth: $206 million  Age: 53
Marital Status: Married, 5 children

Emily Hahn, 14 January 1905-18 February 1997
Her years in Shanghai, China (from 1935 to the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong in 1941) were the most tumultuous of her life. There she became involved with prominent Shanghai figures, such as the wealthy Sir Victor Sassoon, and was in the habit of taking her pet gibbon, Mr. Mills, with her to dinner parties, dressed in a diaper and a minute dinner jacket.

Supporting herself as a writer for The New Yorker, she lived in an apartment in Shanghai’s red light district, and became romantically involved with the Chinese poet and publisher Sinmay Zau. He gave her the entrée that enabled her to write a biography of the famous Soong sisters, one of whom was married to Chiang Kai-shek.

“Chances are, your grandmother didn’t smoke cigars and let you hold wild role-playing parties in her apartment”, said her granddaughter Alfia Vecchio Wallace in her affectionate eulogy of Hahn. “Chances are that she didn’t teach you Swahili obscenities. Chances are that when she took you to the zoo, she didn’t start whooping passionately at the top her lungs as you passed the gibbon cage. Sadly for you … your grandmother was not Emily Hahn.”

Hahn frequently visited Sinmay's house, which was highly unconventional for a Western woman in the 1930s. The Treaty of the Bogue was in full effect, and Shanghai was a city divided by Chinese and Westerners at the time. Sinmay introduced her to the practice of smoking opium, to which she became addicted.

She later wrote, "Though
I had always wanted to be an opium addict, I can't claim that as the reason I went to China."

After moving to Hong Kong, she began an affair with Charles Boxer,[1][2] the local head of British army intelligence. According to a December 1944 Time article, Hahn "decided that she needed the steadying influence of a baby, but doubted if she could have one. 'Nonsense!' said the unhappily-married Major Charles Boxer, 'I'll let you have one!' Carola Militia Boxer was born in Hong Kong on October 17, 1941".
When the Japanese marched into Hong Kong a few weeks later Boxer was imprisoned in a POW camp, and Hahn was brought in for questioning. "Why?" screamed the Japanese Chief of Gendarmes, "why ... you have baby with Major Boxer?" "Because I'm a bad girl," she quipped. Fortunately for her, the Japanese respected Boxer's record of wily diplomacy.
As Hahn recounted in her book China to Me (1944), she was forced to give Japanese officials English lessons in return for food, and once slapped the Japanese Chief of Intelligence in the face. He came back to see her the day before she was repatriated in 1943 and slapped her back.
China to Me was an instant hit with the public. According to Roger Angell of The New Yorker, Hahn "was, in truth, something rare: a woman deeply, almost domestically, at home in the world. Driven by curiosity and energy, she went there and did that, and then wrote about it without fuss."[3]
Obituary: Emily Hahn
Sarah Anderson
Saturday 17 May 1997

"Mickey" Hahn was born in 1905 in St Louis, Missouri; her father was a hardware salesman and her mother a suffragette. She and her siblings were brought up to be independent and to think for themselves and she became the first woman to take a degree in mining engineering from the University of Wisconsin.

She went on to study mineralogy at Columbia and anthropology at Oxford, working in between as an oil geologist, a teacher and a guide in New Mexico before she arrived in New York where she took up writing seriously. Letters that she had written to her brother-in-law were published in the New Yorker in 1929 and she continued to write for the magazine, under four different editors, on a variety of topics until a few weeks before her death.
In 1935 she travelled to China for a short visit and ended up by staying nine years in the Far East.
She loved living in Shanghai and met both Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai,
eventually writing a biography of the Soong sisters, published in 1941. She became the lover of Zau Sinmay, an intellectual, whom she particularly liked for his overwhelming curiosity about everything, she felt it rubbed off on her, and together they founded the English-language magazine Candid Comment.
She maintained that where she lived was unimportant to her: "I don't pay attention to my surroundings. I really don't. I don't bother." Perhaps it was to satisfy her maternal instinct that one day when she saw a gibbon, Mr Mills, in the Shanghai Pet Store she went home, having bought him, in a state of "hysterical happiness". During her time in China she learned to smoke opium, persisting for two years until, inevitably, she became addicted; she was then cured by a hypnotist.

| - - - -

The former residences(above)of American author Emily Hahn(below left) and her Chinese poet lover Shao Xunmei(below right) were typical Spanish-style villas at 1754 Huaihai Road. Four years ago, a property developer converted the villas into new, creamy-yellow houses(top) nd they were sold to Taiwanese businessmen.(Photo: Shanghai Daily)

A book published in China last month entitled "Xiang Meili" - American author Emily Hahn's Chinese name - looks back at the life and loves of this remarkable journalist and writer in the Shanghai of the 1930s.
Xiang Meili was the name given to Hahn by her Chinese poet-lover, Shao Xunmei (Sinmay Zau). Although their movie-like affair is a highlight of the new book, their former homes at 1754 Huaihai Road are gone and it's hard to find traces of their lives there today.

-  One of my heroes is Charles Boxer (1904-2000). I knew him as a brilliant historian of the Dutch in Japan, the East Indies and Brazil
Charles Ralph Boxer FBA (8 March 1904 at Sandown on the Isle of Wight – 27 April 2000 at St. Albans, Hertfordshire) was a distinguished historian of Dutch and Portuguese maritime and colonial history.

The son of Colonel Hugh Boxer and his wife Jane Patterson, Charles Boxer was educated at Wellington College and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Boxer was gazetted a second lieutenant in the Lincolnshire Regiment in 1923 and served in that regiment for twenty-four years until 1947. He served in Northern Ireland, then,

from 1930 to 1933, he was a language officer in Japan assigned to the 38th Infantry Regiment based at Nara, Nara Prefecture, Japan. At the same time, he was assigned to the non-commissioned officers school at Toyohashi.

In 1933, he qualified as an official interpreter in the Japanese language. Posted to Hong Kong in 1936, he served as a General Staff Officer 3rd grade (GSO3) with British troops in China at Hong Kong, doing intelligence work.

In 1940, he was advanced to General Staff Officer 2nd grade (GSO2). Wounded in action during the Japanese attack on Hong Kong on 8 December 1941, he was taken by the Japanese as a prisoner of war and remained in captivity until 1945. After his release, Boxer returned to Japan as a member of the British Far East Commission in 1946-47. During his military career, Boxer published 86 publications on Far Eastern history with a particular focus on the 16th and 17th centuries.
In 1945, he married Emily Hahn (d. 1997), with whom he had two daughters. He had earlier been married to Ursula Norah Anstice Tulloch

More about Rewi Alley and Indusco, Inc.

(From left to right) Ye Qianyu, Edgar Snow, Israel Epstein, Jin Zhonghua, Zhang

Soong Ching Ling was the pioneer of public welfare in China. Attaching great importance to China' publicities, Soong exerted significant impact on the public through her penetrating insight and unique way of publicity work. During the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, she personally selected a painting for public welfare promotion, which remains a good example even today.
From Fugitives to Refugees
 Japanese troops invaded the northeast China on September 18th, 1931 and this was the notorious "September 18th Incident," which threw China into a moment when the nation's existence was at stake. Soong Ching Ling was very anxious about the situation and held talks with friends to discuss how to resist the Japanese aggression. On Jan. 28, 1932, Japanese troops invaded Shanghai and the 19th Route Army bravely resisted the aggressors. Soong Ching Ling, in spite of Japanese bullets and bombs, toured the battlefield at Wusong, expressing her care and concern for the Chinese officers and soldiers. She also organized to donate cashes for workers on strike, set up the National Hospital for wounded soldiers, and made public speeches to inspire the Chinese people against Japanese aggression. "
On Nov. 12, Shanghai fell to Japanese troops, but Soong Ching Ling persisted in her work on the "isolated island"--the International Settlement.  Urged by her friends for times, she secretly left Shanghai for Hong Kong by ship on Dec. 23, escorted by her New Zealand friend, Rewi Alley.
In June 1938, Soong Ching Ling founded the China Defense League (CDL) in Hong Kong, appealing to all peace-loving people and democracy supporters to help China in her fight against the Japanese aggression. In August of the same year, "The Chinese Industrial Cooperatives" supported by Soong Ching Ling was founded in Wuhan for the sake of coastal economic resurgence and the workers' employment. In Jan. 1939, "The International Committee of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives" was founded in Hong Kong, with Soong Ching Ling as Honorary President. After these organizations were founded, it was urgent to do effective publicity work in order to increase donations as soon as possible.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on Dec. 8, 1941 broke out the Pacific War. On the same day, Hong Kong was bombed by the Japanese war planes and the situation became seriously intensified. On Dec. 10, Soong Ching Ling left for Chongqing on the last flight from Hong Kong, six hours before Kai Tak Airport fell to Japanese troops

Soong Ching Ling posing with Ding Cong and Chen Yanqiao in April 1939
Soong Ching-ling  (27 January 1893 – 29 May 1981), also known as Madame Sun Yat-sen, was one of the three Soong sisters—who, along with their husbands, were amongst China's most significant political figures of the early 20th century. She was the Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China. She was the first non-royal woman to officially become head of state of China, acting as Co-Chairman of the Republic from 1968 until 1972. She again became head of state in 1981, briefly before her death, as the Honorary President of the People's Republic of China
...she exiled herself to Moscow after the expulsion of the Communists from the KMT in 1927.
... During the Chinese Civil War, she sided with the Communists. The Kuomintang issued an arrest order for Soong on October 9, 1949, while she was in Beijing with the Communists.[3]
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, she became one of two Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China (now translated as "Vice President"), Head of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association and Honorary President of the All-China Women's Federation. In 1951 she was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize (Lenin Peace Prize after destalinization).
She became the first female President of the People's Republic of China: from 1968 to 1972 she acted jointly with Dong Biwu as head of state.
Soong aroused the jealousy of Mao Zedong's wife Jiang Qing, who attempted to have her purged by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution. However, Mao himself and Zhou Enlai ordered her not to be touched along with several other communist and non-communist cadres.

Rewi Alley and the Beijing Bailie University
Rewi Alley / Mao
Rewi Alley

The most famous New Zealander in China – Rewi Alley contributed perhaps more than any other foreigner to the Chinese revolution. He was the founder and inspiration for the NZ China Friendship Society, dedicating 60 years of his life to his adopted country, while remaining a New Zealander at heart. Rewi organised thousands of industrial co-operatives during the war against Japan. He also pioneered technical training schools, the most famous at Shandan in the Gobi Desert.

Rewi Alley was born in Springfield, Canterbury, New Zealand in 1897. He went to primary school at Amberley and Wharenui (Christchurch) where his father was headmaster.

In 1912 he entered Christchurch Boys’ High School and in 1916 enlisted in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force which fought in France. He was twice wounded and received the Military Medal for bravery. Returning home at the end of World War 1 he bought a farm with an old schoolmate in the Moeawatea Valley inland from Waverley (Taranaki), where they struggled for six years of farming depression.Then he left New Zealand and headed for China, arriving on April 21st 1927. He obtained work in Shanghai as a fire officer and later as Chief Factory Inspector. During this time he saw the terrible conditions of the Chinese workers at first hand and identified with their struggles.

In the summer of 1929 during his annual leave, he travelled far inland to Suiyuan Province helping the China International Famine Relief Commission. Likewise in 1932 he worked on flood relief in Hubei Province. During the mid-1930s he became friendly with many Chinese and foreign progressive people and worked with them, sometimes in underground activities supporting the Red Army.

The Japanese invaded China in force in 1937 and Rewi became actively involved against them. He initiated and organised the Gong He (Gung Ho) movement for industrial co-operative factories in unoccupied China, working in the field in both Nationalist and Communist held areas. By 1942 they had set up about 2000 such co-operatives. Around this time he turned his main attention to schools which were training youth in the skills needed in the co-operatives. He founded these schools and called them Bailie Schools after his friend Joseph Bailie, an American missionary who had pioneered the ideas of integrating theory and practice in education in China.
Joseph Bailie

Joseph Bailie, American missionary (male), was born on 11 July 1860, the son of William Bailie and (Mrs.) Mary Lou Bailie of Ballycloughan, Ireland.
Having been accepted by the Foreign Mission Board of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PN), he arrived in China in 1890. He engaged in ministerial and educational work in Suzhou, Jiangsu, Nanjing, and Beijing.
He died in 1935.

Rewi Alley met Dr Joseph Bailie, an American missionary of Irish extraction, after reading one of his newspaper articles on technical improvements in the Chinese village. The two men became close friends. Bailie urged Rewi to understand China from the social base of its villages and to make time to see them at first hand. Rewi started to make trips to towns, temples, gardens and canals on the perimeters of Shanghai, and making visits to villages further afield at the weekends.


After 10 months Rewi Alley was appointed as an inspection officer for the Shanghai Fire Department. This entailed visiting factories throughout Shanghai. One weekend in the spring he witnessed the execution of 6 young men at Wuxi who had been trying to form a communist union of the town’s silk filiature workers. Rewi spoke about the Wuxi shootings with Henry Baring, a schoolteacher acquaintance in Shanghai, who gave Rewi a copy of Karl Marx’s Das Kapital to read. They discussed labour and social conditions in Shanghai.


At the end of 1932, he met Agnes Smedley, left wing journalist, writer and revolutionary, who had asked to be shown round the Shanghai factories. He spoke to her about his disillusion with the Kuomintang, their control of the press and the suppression of workers in the city, the shooting of the silk workers at Wuxi, the execution of other alleged Communists and other dreadful events. Rewi Alley already knew a little of the covert operations of Communists in Shanghai. He now saw the Communists as the champions of China’s oppressed population.


Eager for change, Rewi Alley and Agnes Smedley joined a small group of western Marxist intellectuals, including Edgar and Helen Snow, to form a secret Marxist-Leninist study group in Shanghai, set up with the aid of the Chinese Communist Party. For the next 5 years he wrote (under various aliases including Han Sumei and Chao Tachi) for the radical journal Voice of China and worked secretly for the Communist underground, including having to wash ‘bloody money’ obtained by Red Army raids executed under the guise of anti-Japanese strikes.
Rewi, Agnes Smedley and Song Qingling were involved in setting up a secret medical depot for Mao Zedong’s forces in the north-west. This was established by persuading Dr Wunsch to set up a legitimate dental practice in Xian as a cover for passing important medical supplies on to Communist forces.

His friend, Dr Joseph Bailie, shot himself after a failed cancer operation.

Ida Pruitt, a Chinese-born American heading the social services department of the big Rockefeller hospital in Beijing, provided important support. By mid 1939 she had founded in Hong Kong the International Committee to receive overseas funds for the ‘Gung Ho’ movement. This was headed by Ronald Hall, the Anglican bishop of Hong Kong and South China. Ida Pruitt set off to America to embark on further fund raising there. This led to the foundation of Indusco Inc with the backing of leading personalities such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Henry Luce.

Rewi Alley continued to travel relentlessly all over China on CIC work and had a number of meetings with Mao Zedong. Mike worked as translator for the Canadian surgeon Norman Bethune in his front line operating theatres.

Rewi Alley was officially recognised by the New Zealand Government when he was awarded a Queen’s Service Order for services to the community's_Service_Order
The Queen's Service Order was established by Queen Elizabeth II on 13 March 1975, awarded by the government of New Zealand "for valuable voluntary service to the community or meritorious and faithful services to the Crown or similar services within the public sector, whether in elected or appointed office". This order was created after a review of New Zealand's honours system in 1974.

Recipients of this award are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "QSO"
Following the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, the New Zealand expatriate Rewi Alley threw his considerable talents behind the war effort. Having lived and worked in China almost continuously for a decade, Alley was intimately familiar with the country, well traveled, and well connected, including to Mao Zedong and the Communist underground.

After witnessing first hand the devastation of the Japanese assault in Shanghai, Alley gathered a group of eleven like-minded friends at a local restaurant in April 1938 to help organize and support the resistance. The result of that meeting was the formation of the Chinese Industrial Cooperative Movement (CIC), also known as the Gung Ho Movement from the Chinese slogan for "work together." From the outset, the CIC was an ambitious enterprise built upon the chaos of war and, at least initially, it drew support from both Communists and Nationalists. The plan was to establish a network of industrial cooperatives throughout the unoccupied regions of the country, away from the vulnerable coastal cities, mobilizing labor from among the large pool of refugees to produce everything from vehicles to armaments, machinery, clothing, and other durable goods needed for the war effort. With the blessing of the British and Chinese governments, Alley arranged to have factories freighted inland to keep production flowing, engaging the Chinese workers in the gung ho spirit to do the work themselves. To fund the movement, in 1939, Alley's energetic associate Ida Pruitt created Indusco, Inc., as a New York-based fundraising arm of the CIC.
Alley's friend and CIC co-founder, Edgar Snow, considered Alley to have been as important to China during the Sino-Japanese War as T.E. Lawrence was to the Arabs during the First World War, "and perhaps more," symbols of active resistance, as much as agents of change. "Where Lawrence brought to Arabia the destructive techniques of guerrilla warfare," Snow wrote, "Alley is teaching China the constructive organisation of guerrilla industry."

[ fyi - The Rockfellers are baptists ...

Ida Pruitt was the daughter of North China Southern Baptist missionaries Anna Seward Pruitt and C.W. Pruitt.
In 1918, she came back to the United States and studied social work in Boston and Philadelphia until hired by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York as head of the Department of Social Services at the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) where she remained until 1938.
During the Japanese occupation of China (1937–1945), Ida assisted Rewi Alley as he organized the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. The CIC was formed to organize cooperative factories throughout the countryside to support China's industry. Schools were built to train the Chinese (often crippled or orphaned) to work in and manage the factories. Indusco, the fundraising arm of the CIC in the United States, was formed, and Pruitt served as its executive secretary from 1939 to 1951.
In 1946. She rented an apartment with Maud Russell on West 93rd Street in New York City and remained there until 1951 when she retired ... Ida Pruitt died on July 24, 1985, in Philadelphia.
Following the official inauguration of the Chinese Industrial Cooperative Association in Hankou, 1938, thousands of co-ops were organized throughout the country. All sorts of daily necessities were produced in large quantity by the co-ops, giving necessary support to the army and people in the warfront against Japanese invaders. While the Snows did not personally organize co-ops in the field, as Alley did, they campaigned tirelessly, soliciting support for them in the United States, the Philippines, and elsewhere.

This was done in close association with the International Committee of Indusco, whose chairwoman was Madame Sun Yat-sen.

Along with Ida Pruitt, Helen Snow helped set up and run the American Committee in Aid of the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives in New York City, becoming its vice-chairperson. Mrs. Anna Roosevelt, the U.S. President’s mother, was honorary head. Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, the President's wife, was a sponsor. The committee collected some $5 million U.S. dollars in wartime relief funds for Indusco.
Primary Resources: FBI Files
Mrs. Roosevelt deserve a great deal more publicity than they have heretofore received. Time after time, she has gone out of her way to endorse or to give assistance to known Communists.

Take the case of her notorious endorsement of Alger Hiss, in her column of August 16, 1948. "Smearing good people like Alger Hiss and Lauchlin Currie [both Soviet espionage agents] is, I think, unforgivable...Anyone knowing either Mr. Currie or Mr. Hiss, who are two people whom I happen to know fairly well, would not need any denial on their part to know they are not Communists. Their records prove it."

Eleanor Roosevelt is unmistakably the wheel-horse of the Democratic Party. Without her aid, no aspirant to the Democratic Presidential nomination is supposed to stand a ghost of a chance. Her political moves pivot from a base centered within the organization known as the American for Democratic Action (ADA). She was one of the ADA's founders and is its honorary chairman and one of its supreme potentates. Knowing her long pro-Communist record, it is inconceivable that any of the sycophantic Democratic Presidential aspirants currently clustering around this Queen Bee of the ADA could be unaware of their public responsibility to repudiate her endorsement.
(2) American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives (INDUSCO, INC.) - member advisory board - November 1950 (Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Hearings, Institute of Pacific Relations, Part 11, March 1952, p. 3794)
(39) INDUSCO, INC. (See also citation number 2, same organization, earlier date) - member of advisory board - letterhead, April 1951 (LJLC, p. 52)


(The document referred td was marked "Exhibit No. 559," and is as follows:)

Exhibit No. 559

Honorary Chairman : Admiral Harry E. Tarnell.

Honorary Vice Chairman : Frances Curtis, Marshall Field, Owen Lattimore.


American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives
"Gung Ho" — ^Work Together

Telephone MUrray Hill 3-3792

November 1950.

Dear Friend : The weekly letters from the Bailie Memorial Technical Training School in Sandan tell of the progress in the projects which your gifts have helped to make possible. There is so much to be said for the remarkable job the school has done and continues to do.

There is the desert land that grows wheat, vegetables, and flax where nothing grew before. There are the numerous production centers that turn out cloth, cbemicals, rugs, pottery, machines, glass, paper, and many other articles where nothing was produced before. Most important of all are the young people — future machinists, chemists, animal husbandry experts, cooperative specialists,
scientific farmers and producers for the villages of China — who but a few years ago were poverty-stricken youngsters without a future or hope. -•

What a truly great gain for freedom from want.

What makes it meaningful to us is that Americans join with people from all over the world to help make the Sandan Bailie School a living center of inter- national good will, where your friendship is a concrete and creative thing.

I want to urge you to continue to keep the Sandan Bailie School a splendid  example of this friendship and help. The cost of running the school had decreased considerably because of the school's ability to supply many of the  things it needs. But our help — and it is getting through to them and getting through in record time these days— is needed for teachers' salaries, for new teaching equipment, for replacement of worn equipment, for medical supplies in the school hospital, and for development of experimental projects.

We would like to be able to say to Sandan at Christmas — "your American
friends are with you ; we can promise the funds you need to carry you to the
next year's harvest."

Won't you send us as generous a check as you can today?
Very sincerely,

sig Ida Pruitt
Ida Pruitt.

Board op Directors : Maxwell S. Stewart, Chairman ; Rev. Dwight J. Bradley, D. D.,
Vice Chiairman ; Ida Pruitt, Secretary ; Charles S. Gardner, Treasurer ; T. A. Bisson,
Frances Curtis, Mrs. Frederick B. Fisher, Talitha Gerlach, Carl Goderez, Helen M.
Harris, Mrs. Philip Jaffe, 01«a Lang, Mrs. Owen Lattimore, Bishop S. Harrington Littell,
Rev. William H. Melish. Walter Rautenstrauch, Alfred B. Sidwell, Nym. Wales, Richard
Watts, Jr., C. Martin Wilbur, Thomas Wright. Representative in China, Rewi Alley.

Officers of Indusco, Inc.

President, Maxwell S. Stewart ; Vice President, Mrs. Gifford Pinchot ; Secretary, Mrs. Owen Lattimore ; Treasurer, Charles S. Gardner.

Advisory Board
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt

Mr. Morris. Do you know that Mr. Rosinger was the editor of the  last large publication of the IPR ?
Mr. Fairbank. He was the editor of the State of Asia which was a symposium.
Mr. Morris. That was financed by the Rockefeller Foundation, was it not, and it was an extensive project of the IPR?

Section for "The United China Relief Fund"
This seems to be run be the same people that were using other funds to support Mao's army. ... Also this would be a way for Rockefeller Luce and others to funnel support with the front that it was "for the children" ...

United Service to China was founded as United China Relief on February 7, 1941. Their fund drive in 1942 brought in $7 million dollars for relief in China.

United Service to China (U.S.).
Title and dates:
United Service to China Records
bulk 1941-1950
The Records of United Service to China, Inc., known from 1941 to 1946 as United China Relief, Inc., document the activities of the organization from the early formation in 1940 to its official consolidation with the American Bureau for Medical Aid to China in 1966.

In addition there is a limited amount of material from other Chinese relief agencies that predate the founding of United China Relief / United Service to China. The Records focus on UCR/USC attempts to raise money in the United States, to educate Americans about China and the Chinese people, and to carry on relief work in China. The collection consists primarily of correspondence among the various individuals and agencies involved with UCR/USC, along with other material produced by the agency, such as minutes and publicity material. In addition, the collection includes a series of photographs dealing with China during the 1940s and efforts in the United States to raise money for China during the same period.

History of United Service to China

United Service to China was founded as United China Relief on February 7, 1941 as a membership corporation in the state and county of New York. However, the origins of UCR/USC stretch back more than a year to January 1940 when a group of men known as the Committee of Five first suggested that the various relief agencies raising money for China could work more effectively if they were to work together.

The Committee of Five promoted, without much success, this idea throughout the year among the various agencies associated with relief for China. This committee consisted of Dr. Claude Forkner, Mr. Roger Greene, Dr. Edward H. Hume, Dr. John Earl Baker, and Dr. B. A. Garside.

The Coordinating Committee for China Relief and Rehabilitation decided in December 1940 that the idea had some merit and began studying ways in which to coordinate their fundraising activities. This committee consisted of representatives from the American Bureau for Medical Aid to China (ABMAC), the China Emergency Relief Committee, the China Aid Council, the American Committee for Chinese War Orphans, the Church Committee for China Relief, China Famine Relief, the American Committee for Chinese Industrial Cooperatives (Indusco, Inc.), and the Associated Boards for Christian Colleges in China (ABCCC). These agencies decided to establish a corporation that would carry on a joint fundraising campaign. All of the agencies on the committee except China Famine Relief elected to become cooperating agencies of the newly formed United China Relief, Inc.

The original intent of the cooperating agencies was that UCR would be a temporary institution which would last only long enough to conduct a 1941 fundraising campaign.

The goal of this campaign was to raise $5 million, approximately four times as much as the agencies had been able to raise separately in 1940. UCR was unable to meet this goal by the original July 31 deadline, so the board extended the deadline several times. By the end of the year, UCR had been so successful that the agencies decided to maintain it as a permanent institution in order to raise money on a permanent basis.

In 1942 UCR conducted a very successful campaign, raising approximately $7 million for relief for China. However, this was UCR's last independent campaign for several years, because in 1943 UCR joined the National War Fund and conducted most of its fundraising through that agency and under its supervision. This arrangement was a great financial success for UCR.

The next major change in the organization came at the end of the war in 1945. Most of UCR's efforts up to this time had been focused on short-term relief work in China to deal with the devastation of the country by the war with the Japanese. After the war the UCR turned instead to projects with more long-term benefits, such as education. The directors felt that the best way they could fulfill their duty to China was to help the Chinese help themselves. As a reflection of its new mission, the board decided in 1946 to change the name of the corporation to United Service to China, Inc.

USC attempted to conduct its first independent campaign in several years in 1946 and extending through 1947. This was not as successful as the campaigns during the war years had been, a condition which the directors attributed to lack of interest in philanthropic organizations among the American people.

In an attempt to generate more income, USC joined with an organization known as American Overseas Aid - United Nations Appeal for Children in a joint campaign, through which they had hoped to receive $4.8 million, but eventually received only a few hundred thousand dollars. Although USC tried other fundraising techniques, such as direct mail to those considered most likely to contribute, USC revenue was still far less than in previous years.

In addition, growing Communist influence in China made it seem less and less likely that USC would be able to generate support for China, no matter how assiduously it campaigned. As a result, USC had to scale back its activities. USC operated on an ever decreasing scale until the end of 1950, when the directors decided that USC should become inactive. They dismissed all of their employees and ceased all active solicitation as of December 31, 1950.

During the next few months, all the assets of USC except for a small reserve fund were handed over to the two cooperating agencies which were still operating and associated with USC: the American Bureau for Medical Aid to China (ABMAC) and the United Board for Christian Colleges in China (UBCCC, formerly ABCCC).

The contributors to USC were informed of the change and asked to make all their contributions either to ABMAC or UBCCC. In the years that followed, USC carried on very limited activities. It did not solicit funds, but it did receive some unsolicited contributions and bequests from estates. It passed these funds, along with interest from the reserve fund, on to its cooperating agencies. The board met once every year in order to maintain USC‘s legal status. The meetings usually lasted only 10 to 15 minutes and consisted of little more than reelecting all the members of the board for the upcoming year.

In 1965, the board decided that USC could do more for China by giving all of its funds to agencies which were actually active in China than by waiting to reactivate itself at some unknown time in the future. It decided to liquidate its reserve fund and hand over the funds to the cooperating agencies to help them continue their programs. The board therefore ordered that the officers of the corporation look into (1) recovering all the funds from dormant accounts which had previously been held by local committees of UCR/USC, and (2) finding a way of terminating USC's legal existence. The officers conducted the search for the dormant funds, but the amount that they recovered was negligible.

At the next meeting of the board, in November 1966, the directors voted to divide the financial assets and liabilities of USC evenly between the American Bureau for Medical Aid to China (ABMAC) and the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (UBCHEA, formerly UBCCC). They also voted to consolidate USC and ABMAC, so that ABMAC would take on all the legal obligations of USC, and it would go out of existence as of the close of business on December 31, 1966.

In total, UCR/USC had raised over $52 million to aid China, 90% of it between 1941 and 1946, and 99% between 1941 and 1950.
Special Correspondence

Indusco: Chinese Industrial Cooperatives (C.I.C.)

In the late 1930’s, Edgar Snow, Nym Wales, and Rewi Alley established the Chinese Industrial Cooperative organization, Indusco. Snow’s primary responsibility as chairman of the Membership and Propaganda Subcommittee was to build public and financial support for Indusco. Indusco was most active through the 1940’s.

Folder 87. Indusco correspondence 1938
includes correspondence with Rewi Alley, James Bertram, and Rewi Alley’s article, "Hong Kong and Shanghai Promotional Committee of the Chinese Industrial Cooperative"

The 1939 correspondence includes correspondence with Rewi Alley, Israel Epstein (Izzie), T. V. Soong, Ida Pruitt (chairman of the Hong Kong Promotion Committee of the C.I.C.), Mrs. SelwynClark of the China Defense League,- K. P. Liu (secretary-general of the C.I.C.), Y. C. Meng, Chen Han-seng, Theodore (Ted) Herman, and Guo Da (journalist). Also letters to Mao Tse-tung.

1921 - Trustees of Peking Union Medical College. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., PUMC’s largest donor, is center (holding hat). (Source: Paul Monroe Papers, Special Collections, Columbia University, Teachers College Library)

Fig. 1,—Members of the board of trustees of Peking Union Medical College:
From left to right:
Dr. Francis W. Peabody, Harvard Medical School; Dr. Henry S. Houghton, director of the college; Miss Eggleston, assistant secretary of the board of trustees; Edwin R. Embree, secretary of the Rockefeller Foundation; Prof. Paul Monroe, Teachers College, Columbia University; James L. Barton, secretary, American Board of Foreign Missions; Dr. William H. Welch, Johns Hopkins University; Dr. Richard M. Pearce, director, Rockefeller Foundation, Division of Medical Education; George E. Vincent, president, Rockefeller Foundation; John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ; Roger S. Greene, resident director of the Rockefeller Foundation China Medical Board;

F. H. Hawkins, London Missionary Society; Martin A. Ryerson, chairman, board of trustees, University of Chicago ; J. Christie Reid, Medical Missionary Association of London.

The Committee of Five promoted, without much success, this idea throughout the year among the various agencies associated with relief for China. This committee consisted of Dr. Claude Forkner, Mr. Roger Greene, Dr. Edward H. Hume, Dr. John Earl Baker, and Dr. B. A. Garside
Claude E. Forkner, 92, Internist and Professor
Published: December 29, 1992

Dr. Claude E. Forkner Sr., a former professor at Cornell University Medical School and an internist, died on Dec. 20 at his home in DeLand, Fla. He was 92.

Dr. Forkner died in his sleep. He had suffered from diabetes, said his wife of 65 years, Marion Sturges DuBois Forkner.

For 30 years, from the mid-1930's to the mid-1960's, Dr. Forkner was on the faculty of Cornell University Medical Center and an attending physician at New York Hospital. His patients included Senator Robert A. Taft, the Ohio Republican, the royal families of Iran, Saudi Arabia and Nepal, and film stars, including Fredric March and Gertrude Lawrence
the China Medical Board and its parent organization, the Rockefeller Foundation, supported dozens of medical schools in China,
"China Medical Board - CMB Director Claude E. Forkner"
Even after the Japanese occupation of the PUMC in December 1941, the Medical College faculty and staff decided to stay in Beijing.
Rockefeller Foundation and China Medical Board contributions to public health in wartime China were either invaluable or invisible, depending on the angle of one's line of sight ...  while most commoners had no idea that the Foundation even existed, nor did its millions of dollars save them from starvation, bombing, and death by treatable disease.
Dr. Edward H. Hume
Edward Hicks Hume (1876–1957) was a missionary doctor and educator best known for his work in China for the Yale-in-China Mission and his writings on Chinese medicine. After some twenty years of medical work, which included organizing the Hsiang-Ya Medical College, which still functions in Changsha today, Hume resigned over the issue of turning control over to Chinese during the anti-imperialist campaigns of 1925-1927. He died in Wallingford, Connecticut, February 8, 1957.
In 1926, as other foreigners in China condemned the anti-foreign campaigns of the rising Kuomintang, Hume declared his understanding of their attitudes. "No one can give effective service to China today, whom the Chinese do not welcome. We are guests here."

When Yali students took to the streets in violent protest of the May Thirtieth Incident of 1925, however, Hume found it impossible to simultaneously placate them, reassure his Chinese and American colleagues, and satisfy the trustees in New Haven. He came to doubt the worth of the American staff and even of the Yali Bachelors, recent Yale graduates who came to Changsha to teach English.

When the Trustees rejected his proposal that the medical school and college be turned over to the Chinese, he offered his resignation. [4]

In the years that followed, Hume became director and executive vice-president of the New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital. From 1934 to 1937 he conducted a survey of medical facilities for the Chinese National Health Administration and went on to carry out such a survey in India. Hume also helped to organize the Christian Medical Council for Overseas Work, of which he was secretary from 1938 to 1946.

He participated or served as an officer in a number of organizations, such as Yale-in-China (Trustee, 1927-1954, President 1934-1936, and Vice-President, 1955-1957); the Associated Boards for Christian Colleges in China; and the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations
Bettis Alston Garside (November 22, 1894 - August 1, 1989), better known during his life as B.A. Garside, was an author, an executive for several philanthropic organizations focused on China, and an educator.
n 1922, Garside left on a Presbyterian mission to China. He studied Mandarin until 1923, when he became an education professor at Cheeloo University in Jinan. He served in that role until 1926.[2]
[edit] Work on Chinese education

From 1927-1932, Garside served as secretary of the China Union Universities office in New York City.[2] In his first year in the post, Garside helped eleven Christian colleges in China reopen after they had shut due to political turmoil within the Kuomintang (KMT). Earlier that year, Communist influence in the KMT created conditions leading to shuttering of several of the institutions.[3]

In October 1932, a new organization, the Associated Boards for Christian Colleges of China (ABCCC) was formed to focus on the interests of Christian colleges in China.[4] Garside served as Executive Secretary of the new organization, a position he held until 1941.[2] At the ABCCC, Garside took upon the role of promoting information about the colleges, which in the 1932-1933 academic year had combined enrollments of 5,400 students and endowments of US$12 million.[4]

In 1935, Garside received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from College of the Ozarks.[2]

By the time of the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, 11 of the 12 member institutions of the ABCCC were in the war zone. Garside spoke widely to encourage the American public to boycott Japanese goods to help stop the war, which had prompted several of the colleges to relocate.[5] Later in the war, in 1940, Garside led fundraising efforts for the members of the ABCCC, which had then grown to 13 colleges. In that year, over 7,700 students attended the schools, several of which had moved because of the conflict. Garside spearheaded a campaign to raise US$250,000 for the schools
In March 1941, the ABCCC became part of United China Relief, a new organization which brought together several different philanthropic organizations operating in China.

Other organizations joining United China Relief included the American Bureau for Medical Aid to China, the China Emergency Relief Committee, the American Committee for Chinese War Orphans, the Church Committee for China Relief, the American Committee for Chinese Industrial Cooperatives, and the China Aid Council.

The new board for this organization included Pearl Buck, William Bullitt, Henry Luce, Robert Sproul, Wendell Willkie, John D. Rockefeller III, Theodore Roosevelt Jr., David O. Selznick, and Thomas Lamont. Eleanor Roosevelt served as honorary chairman.

This board chose Garside as the executive director, and he set out to raise the money needed to help the refugees from the war.[7]

United China Relief was the largest philanthropic effort to aid the Chinese people up to that time. This organization, which later became known as United Service to China, raised over US$50 million in donations.[1] Garside's skill in fundraising was shown by the receipt of over $500,000 by June 1941, a mere three months after the launch of the original campaign seeking $5,000,000.[8] From 1941-1967, Garside served in various executive capacities with both organzitions.[2]

In 1959, Garside and Lowell Thomas organized the American Emergency Committee for Tibetan Refugees.[1] Garside served on this committee until 1970.[2]

Garside was a strong supporter of Nationalist China, serving on the Committee for Free China and One Million Against Admission of Communist China to the UN. Garside received the Order of Brilliant Star and the Order of Auspicious Clouds from the Republic of China.

reference: The Nanking Massacre Project
A Digital Archive of Documents & Photographs from American Missionaries Who Witnessed the Rape of Nanking

From the Special Collections of the Yale Divinity School Library

When the Sino-Japanese War erupted on 7 July 1937, the news spread very quickly around the world. Overseas Chinese followed the developments very closely and soon began exploring ways to support China.

In Singapore, leaders in the Chinese community called for a conference to discuss ways to support China. The conference, 侨民大会, was held on the 15 August 1937 under the close supervision of the British colonial government who wished to remain neutral.

The conference delegates founded the Singapore Overseas Chinese Relief Fund Committee, 马来亚新加坡华侨筹赈祖国伤兵难民大会委员会, and chose Mr. Tan Kah Kee, 陈嘉庚, to be the chairman.

As this organization evolved, Chinese leaders in Nanyang, today’s South East Asia, began discussing the possibility of a regional body to co ordinate fund raising efforts. These leaders include Mr. Lee Cheng Chuan, 李清泉 from the Philippines and Mr. Zhuang Xi Yan (Tjung Sie Gan, 庄西言) from Dutch East Indies, today’s Indonesia.

This initiative was supported by the Chiang Kai Shek’s , 蒋介石, Nationalist Government in China and as a result, Chinese leaders in Singapore called for an Overseas Chinese Conference on 10 October 1938. Due to the lack of large conference venues, they hosted the event at the Nanyang secondary school (南洋华侨中学) in Singapore.

Overseas Chinese Conference
The Overseas Chinese Conference was attended by 180 representatives from the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma and Singapore. The Thai government had forbid Chinese in their territory to participate or organize any activities to support China. As a result, the Chinese leaders from Thailand participated in the conference secretly.

These leaders founded the first Chinese regional organization in the history of Nanyang. This organization was the Nanyang Federation of China Relief Fund, 南洋华侨筹赈祖国难民总会 or 南侨总会. Mr. Tan Kah Kee was elected as the Chairman and the headquaters of China Relief Fund was located at the Ee Hoe Hean Club 怡和轩俱乐部, on Bukit Pasoh in Singapore Chinatown.

When the delegates returned hoome, they formed their local China Relief Fund offices to implement fund raising programs. While most of the activities were locally driven, there were also some regional programs.

For example, the Wuhan Choir, 武汉歌唱团 from China launched a Malaya Fund Raising Tour in Singapore and Malaya. Money raised by China Relief Fund was used to pay for medical supplies, war materials and also weapons

Left: Mao Zedong, Zhuang Ming Li and Tan Kan Kee; Right: Tan Kah Kee led a mission to visit war-torn areas and boost the morale of the resistance forces.

Tan’s early anti-Japanese war efforts were launched after the 1928 Jinan Incident, when Japanese and Chinese military clashes led to many civilian casualties. Believing that the Overseas Chinese had a responsibility to support their homeland when it was under threat, Tan led the Shandong Relief effort, which raised $1 million (Chinese currency) within a month.

Tan went on to lead other relief fund efforts, culminating in the Singapore China Relief Fund Committee and South Seas China Relief Fund Union. Under his able leadership, the latter consolidated the efforts of Chinese communities across Southeast Asia and contributed a total of about $5,500 million (Chinese currency) to the Chinese war effort between 1937 and 1942. Tan was greatly respected by the Chinese political leadership; during a 1940 mission to China, he met Chiang Kai Shek, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De and other key members of the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party.

Tan Kah Kee – A granddaughter’s journey of discovery
The year was 1940, and China’s luck was at its lowest point. Much of the eastern states were occupied by the Japanese, and the Nationalist Party under Chiang Kai-shek, still fighting a rear-guard action from the safe haven of wartime capital Chongqing, was hopelessly corrupt. As a de facto leader of the overseas Chinese, Tan Kah Kee has just embarked on an 8-month trip to China, dubbed the Comfort Mission, to bring aid and moral support to those suffering from the onslaught of the invaders. After being feted by Chiang, he visited Mao Zedong, then living in the caves of Yenan with a few thousand of his forces.
Despite Chiang Kai-shek’s chagrin and veiled warnings about how the communist were not to be trusted, (Tan Kan Kee) TKK was anxious to visit Yenan, stronghold of the communist party, especially after having read a book by Edgar Snow called Red Star Over China which praised Mao. Whilst the rest of the comfort mission contingent headed in several directions to carry out their assignment, TKK together with his two closest aides, traveled to remote Shaanxi province to spend a much documented 8 days with Mao and his followers.
[ beware of stories of communist conversions... oh here's one: ]
According to TKK’s historian CF Yong, “What TKK saw in Yenan delighted him no end as he believed he had found a new earth and new heaven. He saw in Mao a public-minded and loyal patriot, whilst in Chiang he saw a cunning and crafty dictator…after Yenan TKK came to the conclusion that Chiang’s government would collapse and that Mao would win.”
When civil war broke out in China in 1946, TKK  – who had previously thought it futile to intervene, blaming the war on the intractable stance of the Kuomintang  – decided to throw in his lot with the ‘leftists’, and in his capacity of head of SCRFU, telegrammed to President Truman to withdraw his support for Chiang. This resulted in bitter enmity between the pro-Kuomintang and Pro-TKK groups which soon polarized the Singapore and Malaya huaqiao communities as never before, resulting in heated political rallies and many slanging matches in the media. The British colonialists became alarmed, especially with a resurgent Malayan Communist Party who allied themselves with the TKK group, and issued stern warnings, as well as banned the China Democratic League, set up to support TKK. Soon TKK was persuaded to make a public statement to support law and order under the administration, and drop his support for the Malayan communist uprising.
By 1948, after the Communist Party had succeeded in capturing much of China, including the south, victory was imminent. A few months later, TKK received an invitation from Mao to take part in the People’s Political Consultative Conference in Beijing, which he duly accepted. As preparations were made for his departure there were signs that he planned to leave the nanyang for good, and settling in his beloved Jimei to spend  his remaining years nurturing education.
As he sailed for Hongkong in May 1949, thousands of wellwishers saw him off , and just as many welcomed him along each destination point in China, with his movements and speeches well-covered in the press. In the newly minted government’s first plenary session, TKK was elected to a 21-man Preparatory Executive Committee as a representative of the overseas Chinese, andn later, as a member of the national committee of the PPCC, as well as a member of the Central People’s Government in Beijing. In other words, TKK became an official of the PRC from its birth in Oct 1, 1949.

Tan Kah-Kee and Mao

Tan Kah-Kee, the Founding Father of Xiamen University

Xiamen University was founded in 1921, the first university in China to be established by an Overseas Chinese leader. Mr. Tan Kah-Kee was the pioneer of private education in China, spending his entire fortune in support of education in his native country. Tan Kah-Kee is an inspirational figure in China´s history of education, and was described by Mao Zedong as a "Standard-bearer of the Overseas Chinese and Glory of the Nation". He was the first President of the China Overseas Chinese League, an outstanding Overseas Chinese leader, a great patriot, and an eminent entrepreneur, educator and social activist
1997 - Tan Kah Kee Hall, named by donors from Asia for the legendary industrialist/ philanthropist, provides muchneeded modern laboratory space for chemistry and chemical engineering research.

China WWII - Anti Japanese Volenteer Armies
Yale-China Celebrates 100 Years of Partnership in Changsha

September 2006

Yale-China is privileged to celebrate two extraordinary and momentous events: the centennials of Yali Middle School and Xiangya Hospital, both of which were founded by Yale-China in 1906 and remain two of Yale-China's closest partner institutions.

Yali Middle School and Xiangya Hospital, both of which have endured periods of tumult and uncertainty, have developed into leading institutions in Hunan. Yale-China staff, trustees, and current and former Teaching Fellows were on hand in Changsha earlier this fall to join in the festivities.
Yali Middle School opened its doors on November 16, 1906, as the Yali Daxuetang, or Yali Academy.

The name "Yali" was chosen for its translation of "Yale" and is derived from a phrase of the Confucian Analects, "ya" meaning elegance of expression, and "li" meaning propriety of conduct.

Thirty students enrolled in the first class, and undertook a curriculum taught primarily by Yale graduates and Changsha educators that was designed to place equal emphasis on Chinese and Western learning. The first Yale graduates to teach at Yali for relatively short-term periods of one or two years arrived in 1909, and thus began the tradition of the Yale-China Bachelors at Yali.

Yale-China Bachelors (since 1995 known as Teaching Fellows) taught at Yali Middle School from 1909 through 1948. The program resumed in 1986 and annually places four recent Yale graduates as English instructors at Yali.

Xiangya Hospital, now one of south China's largest and finest hospitals, celebrated the centennial of its founding on October 18, 2006.

The name "Xiangya," which is a compound of "Hunan" and "Yale," illustrates the shared efforts and aspirations of Hunan and Yale-China leaders a century ago to improve medical education and care in Hunan.

Today, Yale-China and Xiangya continue to enjoy close cooperation, particularly in the areas of nursing and public health. Xiangya Hospital is currently constructing a new hospital complex that will make it the largest hospital in south China.

It is important to understand the history of these people and how these systems of tyranny and death came into place.
Mao's self induced famine killed 38 million and Mao's system of the PRC led to the deaths of 76 million.

So was Chiang Kai Shek’s  being a corrupt warlord trying to defeat the Japanese as bad as Mao killing 76 million of his own people? ( of course this was exactly what the Global Eugenists were hoping for from Mao)

I think I have shown that the relief agencies were funneling money and supplies to the communist armies and these relief agencies were controlled by Rockefeller agents in the U.S or the communists like Tan Kah Kee

The communist symbol The red Sickle to me represents the purges and cullings....

Gun Control = Democide

DEATH BY GOVERNMENT - Definition of Democide

Democide is meant to define the killing by government as the concept of murder does individual killing in domestic society. Here intentionality (premeditation) is critical. This also includes practical intentionality. If a government causes deaths through a reckless and depraved indifference to human life, the deaths were as though intended.
Freedom, Democide, War: An Alternative History Series

IMPORTANT NOTE: Among all the democide estimates appearing in these books, some have been revised upward. I have changed that for

Mao's famine, 1958-1962, from zero to 38,000,000.

And thus I have had to change
the overall democide for the PRC (1928-1987) from 38,702,000 to 76,702,000. Details here
Human Remains -a film about the banality of evil

Written and directed by Jay Rosenblatt
30 minutes • 16mm• color/B&W • 1998

Human Remainsis a haunting documentary which illustrates the banality of evil by creating intimate portraits of five of the 20th century's most reviled dictators. The film unveils the personal lives of Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Francisco Franco and Mao Tse Tung. We learn the private and mundane details of their everyday lives -- their favorite foods, films, habits and sexual preferences. There is no mention of their public lives or of their place in history. The intentional omission of the horrors for which these men were responsible hovers over the film.

Communism symbol of the sickle is used to show that they believe in culling and  political purges...
From 1931 to 1934, Mao helped establish the Soviet Republic of China and was elected Chairman of this small republic in the mountainous areas in Jiangxi. Here, Mao was married to He Zizhen. His previous wife, Yang Kaihui, had been arrested and executed in 1930, just three years after their departure. In Jiangxi, Mao's authoritative domination, especially that of the military force, was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. Mao's opponents, among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin, the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi, were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them.[21]
It is reported that horrible methods of torture were employed under Mao's direction.[22] and given names such as 'sitting in a sedan chair', 'airplane ride', 'toad-drinking water', and 'monkey pulling reins.'[22] The wives of several suspects had their breasts cut open and their genitals burned.[22] Short (2001) estimates that tens of thousands of suspected enemies,[23] perhaps as many as 186,000,[24] were killed during this purge. Critics accuse Mao's authority in Jiangxi of being secured and reassured through the revolutionary terrorism, or red terrorism.[25]'an_Rectification_Movement
The Yan'an Rectification Movement

Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), going from 1942 to 1944. The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a remote and isolated mountainous area in northern Shaanxi, after the communists' Long March.
More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture

The campaign against the 'Four Pests' was initiated in 1958 as a hygiene campaign by Mao Zedong, who identified the need to exterminate mosquitoes, flies, rats, and sparrows ... Ecological imbalance is credited with exacerbating the Great Chinese Famine in which upwards of 30 million people died of starvation
Mao: The Unknown Story, by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday
Alfred A Knopf, New York, 2005 . 814pp. Illus. maps, photos. $35.00. ISBN:0-679-42271-4.

Chang and Halliday have written a meticulously researched account of Mao’s life, and show him to be one of the most evil and depraved tyrants in human history.
Mao was born in Hunan in 1893, and joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He did so mainly for opportunistic reasons, not out of conviction or ideology. He needed money, and a Communist professor offered him a chance to run a bookstore. Mao, in fact, had a lifelong aversion to work, and apart from his book selling and some work as a journalist, never held a real job in his life. Chang and Halliday have carefully documented and exposed many of the lies the Communist Party told about Mao. For example, the Party likes to claim it was founded in 1921, thus making Mao a founding member. In fact, when he joined, it had already been in existence for a year. The authors expose a great many myths about Mao, including that he was a competent and successful military commander.
From the very beginning, Mao was constantly struggling for power with other Communist leaders. His career in the Party went through many ups and downs, but his quest for supreme power was unceasing. Mao frequently squandered the lives of Communist soldiers, both his own and those of rival leaders. He was perfectly capable of ordering a unit loyal to a rival into a hopeless attack, or marching it to destruction. He purged and murdered other Communist leaders, using pitiless terror to keep his own forces in line. He never showed any aptitude as a military commander, though he frequently took credit for strategies devised by others. But as a schemer and manipulator, he was without equal.
One of Mao’s most important advantages during his ascent to power was his ability to milk the connection with Moscow. The Chinese Communist Party remained long firmly under Moscow’s control, and the Soviets saw Mao’s ruthlessness as an advantage. Other Communist leaders might complain to Moscow of Mao’s purges, but to Stalin the fact that Mao was able to purge enemies instead of being purged proved his skill and usefulness. Thus the Soviets frequently protected Mao from his enemies. Mao also carefully placed himself where he could control or manipulate communications within the Party. Other Party leaders frequently knew only what Mao told them, and much of that was untrue.
Perhaps the most fascinating part of the whole book is Chang and Halliday’s through debunking of the myths surrounding the Long March. Mao had a knack for finding gullible Western journalists and intellectuals willing to serve as his useful idiots. Almost everything written about the Long March in the West, including Harrison Salisbury’s book on the subject, is a tissue of lies. Chang and Halliday reveal that the Nationalists actually allowed the Communist army to escape, in large part because Stalin was holding Chiang Kai Shek’s son hostage. Mao took his retreating force on a needlessly long, hazardous, and costly detour to avoid linking up with a larger Communist force led by a potential rival. Contrary to myth,

Mao never lifted a finger to fight the Japanese, and expressed a willingness to partition China between himself, Russia, and Japan
As ruler of China, Mao was obsessed with wielding military superpower. Beginning in the 1950's, he caused a famine that killed an estimated 38 million...'an_Rectification_Movement
Rise of Mao

The Yan'an rectification saw Mao consolidate a position of preeminence in the CCP. To do this he undertook a "thought-reform campaign" from 1942 to 1944. The effort was partly a reflection of Mao's wish to eradicate Soviet influence, and under the conditions of separate base communist areas and incessant warfare, he could not rely on discipline alone to guarantee obedience in the CCP ranks. Thus, the techniques developed to implement thought reform ("washing the brain," as it is called in Chinese) included isolating individuals in "study groups."[7]

Operational principles
The communists established numerous schools, formulating a new type of educational system. Among them were the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University, the Lu Xun Academy of the Arts, the Northwest Public School, the Central Party School, the Academy of Marxism-Leninism, the Women's University, Yan'an University, and the Academy of the Nationality, as well as a number of special training programs.[1] All veterans and new recruits had to be enrolled and educated in one of these institutions in accordance with their previous training or their expertise, before they could be trusted with assignment to party and government positions.[1]

By the end of the Yan'an period the CCP had developed an operational set of principles and practices that differed greatly from the centralized, functionally specialized, hierarchical, command-oriented approach imposed by Stalin in the USSR. In what some authors have labeled the "Yan'an complex," the CCP emphasized a combination of qualities that can be summed up as:

■decentralized rule with flexibility allowed to local leaders;[7]
■the importance of ideology in keeping cadres loyal;
■a strong preference for officials whose leadership spans a range of areas;
■stress on developing and maintaining close ties with the local population;
■focus on egalitarianism and simple living among officials.[7]

Although the communist movement never realized these principles in practice, they became deeply held values of the CCP, and years later would become integral parts of the Party mythology about the success of the Yan'an era.[7]

Thought reform

During the Yan'an rectification, more sophisticated techniques of thought reform were used than had been done previously in China. Relying on criticism, self-criticism, "struggle," and confession, as well as the content of the (allegedly scientific) Marxist doctrine, the methods were heavily influenced by Soviet practices.[11]

Under the guidance of a group leader they would study documents to understand "key principles," and then had to relate those principles to their own lives in a "critical, concrete, and thoroughgoing way."[7] Other members of the group put the individual under "extraordinary pressure" to examine fully his or her most deeply held views, and to do so in the presence of the group.[7]

The individual then had to write a full "self-confession."
Other group members isolated the individual during this process. Only when the confession was accepted would the person be drawn back into an accepted position in the group and in the larger society.[7]

These techniques of pressure, ostracism, and reintegration were particularly powerful in China, according to Lieberthal, where the culture puts great value on "saving face", protecting one's innermost thinking, and above all, identifying with a group.[12] Individuals put through thought reform later described it as excruciating. The resulting changes in views were not permanent, but the experience overall seriously affected the lives of those who went through it.

In a milder form, the CCP used these same types of techniques on millions of Chinese after 1949, according to Lieberthal.

How many times on your job has your boss been critical and forced you to make a self-confession? ....
John Gittings The Guardian, Thursday 1 April 2004 02.29 EST

Chen Han-seng, a pioneer of modern Chinese social science, has died at the age of 107, outliving the leaders of the Communist party for which he worked with enthusiasm during the revolution, but rejected in his old age.
During the war, Chen worked with Soong Ching-ling, widow of Dr Sun Yat-sen, China's first president, to raise funds for the industrial cooperative movement in China, before moving to the US.
In 1924, Li Dazhao, one of the founders of the Chinese Communist party, invited him to work for the Moscow-based Communist International - a connection which Chen would keep secret until he published his memoirs, My Life During Four Eras, in 1988.
Chen fled to Moscow twice - the first time in 1927 and again in 1935, when he was smuggled on to a Soviet ship in Shanghai with the help of the American radical writer Agnes Smedley. He also helped the Soviet master- spy Richard Sorge build up contacts in China.
From 1945 to 1950, he represented the Chinese party in the US while continuing his academic work.

IT was the midsummer of 1951, and at the personal invitation of Soong Ching Ling, Israel Epstein and his late wife, Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley, returned to China from the USA to help set up China Reconstructs in Beijing. On their arrival at Beijing Qianmen Railway Station Chen Hansheng, vice chairman of the editorial board, and Zhang Yan were there to meet them.

Legendary Life of Chen Hansheng  
Chen Hansheng was widely known for his accomplishments in various fields even before the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.

Now 106 years old, he was once the youngest professor at Peking University. He rigorously researched China's economic problems. He could speak at least five foreign languages and seemed to have friends and connections around the world. He was also an outstanding journal editor and columnist.

However, very few people knew that, first and foremost, Chen was a professional underground revolutionary.

Ever since Li Dazhao, one of the founders of the Communist Party of China, invited Chen to join the Communist International in 1924, Chen's life was in constant jeopardy for the next 25 years.

Chen's reputation as a learned scholar provided him with the perfect cover for his underground activities. His acquaintance with both the left and right wings of the Kuomintang made him priceless for the Communist Party in the intelligence war.

He worked with such famous agents as Richard Sorge, the legendary German-Russian intelligence worker, and Hotsumi Ozaki, the great Japanese patriot who loved his country too much to let it slip into the inferno of becoming a war criminal.

In the early 1930s, Chen first helped them collect intelligence in Shanghai for the Chinese Communist Party, then intelligence in Japan for the Soviet Union.

Before the famous spy group was exposed and both Sorge and Ozaki were arrested and executed by Japan in 1944, Chen had returned to Shanghai. With the help of Agnes Smedley and Rewi Alley, Chen successfully escaped Kuomintang searches and sailed to the Soviet Union, according to researcher Jiang Feng.

This was only one of the three times that he narrowly escaped being arrested by fleeing abroad.

While he was carrying out his undercover work, Chen also impressed the Chinese public with his energetic academic activities.

Born in 1897 into a family of traditional intellectuals in Wuxi, east China's Jiangsu Province, Chen was sent to study abroad by his mother when he was 18 in the hope that his precocious intellect could be developed more fully.

He underwent a very systematic education in Western economics and history. He got a Bachelor of Arts at California's Pomona University and a Master of Arts at Chicago University, both in the United States. Then he got a doctorate at Berlin University in Germany.

At the age of 27, when he had finished his studies and returned to China, he became the then youngest professor in Peking University and was nicknamed the "kid professor." But he was impatient to make his academic work be of immediate use for his country.


In 1927, after Li Dazhao was arrested (being killed shortly after), Chen fled to the Soviet Union, working in a research institute on rural problems.

He was amazed to find that his Russian colleagues were satisfied with quoting the doctrines of great thinkers but rarely undertook any down-to-earth social investigations.

Chen deemed himself a doer and he was determined to carry out his own research work when he returned to China.

Back in China two years later, Chen launched a series of large-scale and well-organized surveys on the rural economy as the country had never seen before. The campaign lasted from 1929 to 1934, covering some of the most typically developed rural areas in North, Southeast and South China.

At that time, all kinds of opinions and theories on the peasant issue circulated in China. A lot of blatant lies and irresponsible assertions came from different directions, with a variety of ulterior motives. With undeniable facts and figures, published in the magazine Rural China and in his book Agrarian Problems of Southernmost China, Chen illustrated the extremely underprivileged and poverty-stricken living conditions of Chinese peasants.

His conclusion was radically revolutionary for the time: "Carrying out a land revolution, abolishing the feudal land system and giving land to the peasants is the only solution to China's rural problem."

Walter Chee Kwon Chun, honorary trustee of the Soong Ching Ling foundations in Beijing and Shanghai, said of Chen: "His book Agrarian Problems of Southernmost China and articles helped me understand China's problems."

Chun returned to China in the early 1930s to work as an English-language secretary for Sun Fo, Dr Sun Yat-sen's son and the top legislator of the Kuomintang. Chun was Sun Fo's brother-in-law.

Chen Hansheng's work greatly helped the land revolution being carried out in areas under the leadership of the young Communist Party.

Later, Chen established the Chinese Agricultural Economy Institute in a bid to strengthen academic research into rural issues.

Out of the land campaign and the institute emerged a group of young economic pioneers, many of whom later became the backbone of economic reconstruction in the People's Republic of China.

During the "cultural revolution" (1966-76), the Gang of Four claimed that "there was a black economic front in the 1930s." The term "black" in those days largely meant "capitalistic."

In one sense, they had a point: The scholars did once fight together on the same front.

Before 1949, Chen belonged to that group of people who were more famous abroad than in their own countries. He also spent some time in Hong Kong.


Chen spent most of the first half of his life overseas. He lived and worked abroad during separate periods, once in Japan, once in India, twice in Europe, and twice in the United States in addition to times spent in the Soviet Union.

Abroad, he regarded himself as an advocator for the cause of the Chinese revolution. He became a well-known public figure in international society. His years in the United States and Hong Kong were the most fruitful period of his overseas activity.

In 1936, the Chinese Communist Party sent Chen to the United States to work for Pacific Affairs, a quarterly magazine published by the New York-based Institute of Pacific Relations.

Like most other periodicals about Asia-Pacific affairs published in the United States at that time, Pacific Affairs used to keep a safe distance from substantial and sensitive social issues. Chen and his colleagues turned the magazine into a powerful medium to probe the essential social problems in the Asia-Pacific area and disseminate progressive thought, according to Li Xinyu, an editor of a collection of Chen's theses published between 1919 and 1949.

Meanwhile, Chen actively moved in diplomatic circles in New York and Washington. At that time, the Kuomintang-appointed Chinese official ambassador Hu Shi was spreading biased or false conceptions about China in Western society. These views were sometimes thrown back in his face by Chen.

Several years before in Shanghai, Chen had already become one of Agnes Smedley's best friends. He later also became acquainted with Rewi Alley, Edgar Snow and Anna Louise Strong. He provided invaluable information about China to these Western writers and journalists, through whose reports the Chinese Communist Party's courage and hard work became known to the outside world, according to Israel Epstein, a veteran war journalist and former editor-in-chief of China Today magazine (formerly China Reconstruct magazine).

"I would not be in China if it was not for Chen's work," Epstein added.

During his years in the United States, Chen got in touch with many liberal-minded intellectuals and considerably helped to shape their views on Far Eastern affairs.

One of those most influenced by Chen was Owen Lattimore, who had co-edited Pacific Affairs with Chen and who was an important adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

In May 1939, Chen moved to Hong Kong to help Soong Ching Ling, Rewi Alley and Edgar Snow set up the International Committee for the Promotion of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives.

During the War of Resistance against Japan (1937-45), the committee was a crucial channel for international donations entering China. As the committee's executive secretary and Soong's chief liaison assistant for contacting overseas powers, Chen became an indispensable link in communication between Chinese progressives and overseas sympathizers.

According to an investigation by Stephen MacKinnon, who co-wrote a biography of Smedley and has researched Chen's life, Laughlin Currie -- Roosevelt's envoy to China -- would engage in long talks with Chen every time Currie was passing through Hong Kong.

Through Currie's reports, MacKinnon speculated, Chen must have played a role in changing the Roosevelt government's attitude towards Chiang Kai-shek.

Chen's influence in Western society reached its peak when, under the secret instructions of Zhou Enlai and Liao Chengzhi, he returned to New York after World War II.

He taught as a professor at Washington State University, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Pennsylvania. He also lectured at some of the other most important US universities, such as Harvard University, Columbia University, Chicago University, and the University of California, Berkeley.

A central topic of his speeches was the Chinese land revolution, which he vigorously defended. Through his Western educational background and the disarming impression of an enlightened, liberal intellectual that he conveyed, he always managed to win over his audiences.

As his friend Xue Baoding said: "He certainly is one of the best spokespersons that the Chinese Communist Party ever sent to the West."


Although he gave such an impressive display on the international diplomatic stage, the first thing that Chen did when he returned to China after the People's Republic was founded was to decline Premier Zhou Enlai's proposal that Chen become vice-minister of foreign affairs.

Chen's scholarly instinct had the upper hand. "I'd rather do some research work," he was quoted as saying.

He worked quietly and industriously as a senior research consultant for many institutes, hoping he could make up for the time he had dedicated to practical activities for the Chinese revolution.

In 1952, Soong Ching Ling recommended that Chen oversee the editorial work of the newly established bimonthly English-language periodical China Reconstructs (now the monthly China Today). He readily accepted.

Under his charge, the magazine became a window through which the new China could show itself to the outside world.

Israel Epstein said: "Through him, China Reconstructs magazine was founded, and my wife and I joined the work at the magazine."

With the erudition of an economist and historian, as well as a beautiful writing style, Chen wrote some of the best reports and essays of that time to introduce a changed China to the West.

During the "cultural revolution," Chen again engaged himself in semi-underground undertakings that were as daring and adventurous as those of several decades previously.

In the worst time of political chaos, already a victim of the mass political persecution, he taught English in his own small, humble house to any young person who had the desire to learn.

Among his students were many young people from badly treated families, including the son and daughter of Liu Shaoqi, the top figure on the blacklist at that time.

Seventy years ago, Chen revealed his dream in Oriental Magazine: "If a dream is a wish, my wish is to help the progress of human civilization."

He certainly has tried his best to realize that dream.

(China Daily June 30, 2003)

The Cold War in Asia  

The history of the OSS in China could NOT be written:
OSS in China — New information about an old role

My China eye: memoirs of a Jew and a journalist
 By Israel Epstein
Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance
Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology
Compiled by John Earl Haynes, 20081
Chen, Hansheng: Covert agent of the Communist Party of China from 1920s to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Chen operated in the United States in the 1930s.98 Also known as Hanshen Chen and Henshen Chen.
Counterpropaganda: We Can’t Win Without It
Again we find internal saboteurs who deliberately twisted the American propaganda message against a wartime enemy. With the
defeat of Germany, Russia was expected to come into the war against Japan. A prolonged war would benefit the Soviet Union as it would give Stalin time to get into the war. From the Soviet viewpoint, prolonging the war, despite the loss of American and Japanese lives, would serve Moscow’s purpose.
On March 14, 1952, Owen Lattimore testified before the same Senate committee as Dooman. During the war Lattimore served as the
director of Pacific Operations for the Office of War Information. He was asked by the Committee, if there had not been a directive that there
would be no attacks on the Japanese Emperor in American propaganda. He agreed that there was such a ruling but claimed that he had never
violated it. What he had done, he said, was broadcast a quotation from an article in a Chinese newspaper attacking the Japanese Emperor.
Since this was not an attack by the United States, but only quoting the Chinese writer, Lattimore felt that it did not violate the directive.46

Lattimore used the same excuse that Barnes, the GRU agent at the Office of War Information in New York, had used in the “moronic little
king” incident. The subcommittee consisting of two Democrats and one Republican concluded unanimously that “Owen Lattimore was, from
some time beginning in the 1930’s, a conscious articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy

Chen Hansheng, a Communist International intelligence agent who had been part of the Richard Sorge spy ring in Shanghai and Tokyo, was sent from Moscow to New York in 1936 to assist Lattimore in editing the journal Pacific Affairs. Chen remained in that job until 1939. The subcommittee was aware that Chen was a communist but until Chen’s book My Life During Four Eras was published in 1988 in Beijing, many of the details of his work and connection with Lattimore were unknown.

OSS in China: prelude to Cold War
 By Maochun Yu
- What is interesting is this is a great book that is/was published by Yale Press and is OUT OF PRINT!!!!

Yu is a Naval War College Historian OK? You can get it used for about $20 - New? Talk about $185 !

With a little investigation you can find that the 1st AVG group "Flying Tigers" did not fly any missions until after Dec 8, 1941.
So who was fighting the Japanese in the air? What does this have to do with Communists and Mao? The Soviet Union was actively supplying Mao and alot would be done via air support.
The Soviet Volunteer Group was the ostensibly volunteer Soviet Air Forces to support the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War between 1937 and 1941. After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was signed and large Soviet support was given to China by the Soviet Union, including the volunteer squadrons. China paid for the support in the form of raw materials.

In October 1937, some 450 Soviet pilots and technicians assembled at Alma Ata in the USSR to bring 155 fighter aircraft, 62 bombers, and 8 trainers into China. By 1941, the Soviet-built aircraft sent to China would amount to 885, including two-engine and four-engine bombers, though the latter were never used in combat.[1] Of the aircraft supplied, half were turned over to the Chinese Air Force and half were flown and maintained by personnel from the USSR. The Soviet air units were stationed at bases near the cities of Nanjing, Hankou, and Chongqing, and at Lanzhou in China's northwest at the terminus of the Russian supply route. The Russian commander is identified in most histories as a General Asanov.[2] By the time of their withdrawal, the group's casualties amounted to 227 pilots killed in action.[3]
The Soviet squadrons were withdrawn after the Non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Japan in 1941. As a result, the Chinese turned to the United States, which authorized the creation of the American Volunteer Group Flying Tigers.[4]

There are several monuments to the Soviet aviators in China, including one in Jiefang Gongyuan (Liberation Park) in Wuhan, which was built in 1956.
Volunteer Bombardment Squadron

In the period from the end of 1937 to 1940, the Soviet Union was the primary supplier of military aircraft to the Chinese Air Force, supplying 563 fighter planes and 322 bombers. Some of the planes were flown by Soviet volunteer military pilots sent to China. Aircraft provided by the Soviet Union included Tupolev SB twin-engine and Tupolev TB-3 4-engine bombers, and their latest Polikarpov I-15 biplane fighters and Polikarpov I-16 monoplane fighters.[9][10]
According to Soviet records,[11] by the beginning of September 1938, China received from the Soviet Union 361 aircraft, of which 238 were I-15 and I-16 fighter planes. Together with the American and other foreign planes, the Chinese Air Force had a total of 602 aircraft. By the beginning of 1939, according to Chinese information, the Chinese Air Force had less than 100 aircraft of various types. A new group of 30 Soviet I-15s arrived in Lanzhou on 18 July, while 30 Soviet I-16s arrived on 3 August 1939.[11]

After withdrawing its volunteer pilots from China in the summer of 1940, the Soviet Union continued to supply aircraft to China until June 1941
Soviet Fighters in the Sky of China IV (1937-1940)
by Anatolii Demin
S. P. Suprun’s group ( up to 50 fighters) soon became one of the main forces containing the Japanese.  Air victories appeared on the scores of Suprun, Kokkinaki, Mikhailov, Kondratyuk, Kornienko, and others.  In December 1939 Suprun’s group was transferred to the south where the battle for Yunnan Province had become much more intense, traveling along what would be named the “Burma road”.  Our pilot protected the airfields and communications lines from air attacks.  Already in June 1939 the 17th squadron had been transferred to Kunming, the provincial capital to receive 12 Dewoitine D.510 fighters, but their strength clearly was insufficient.  ...
SUPRUN Stepan Pavlovich ( Hero of the Soviet Union)

In May 1939 fighting in China. He commanded a group of fighters, which covered the important objects of the Japanese air raids. In aerial combat shot down 6 enemy aircraft. May 20, 1940 for their courage and heroism in battle, Major Suprun S.P. Hero of the Soviet Union.

After returning from China in January 1940, again served in the Air Force Institute. Test new fighter I-21, I-26 (Yak-1), MIG-1, LaGG-1. Total mastered the 140 types of aircraft. In March 1940 he was a member of the Soviet commission under the chairmanship of JF Tevosyan, visiting aircraft industries in Germany. Met with E. Heinkel and Messerschmitt VA.
I. F. Tevosyan, a member of the Bolshevik Party Central Committee, led a large commission that went to Germany in October 1939 to study the achievements of the German aircraft industry and to select examples for purchase. Managers from different industries, designers, military specialists, and employees of scientific research institutes comprised the commission.

Next to an He 100, Germany, 1939. In the center - test pilot S. P. Suprun
AN AMERICAN IN CHINA: 1936-39 A Memoir

Hankow 1938
After the fall of Nanking, Hankow became the wartime capital of a new China in which the Communists and the Kuomintang formed a united front. For 10 months hopes ran high and idealism reigned.

"While it lasted, Hankow became a world center for the democratic struggle against fascism, and became almost a tourist stopoff for writers and demi-diplomats who swooped through to visit the front." --Charles Hayford, historian

Throughout the 1930s, American airmen fought the Imperial Japanese Army in China. - Before the Flying Tigers
By Robert E. van Patten

Fully 10 years before the advent of Claire Chennault’s Flying Tigers, American pilots and airplanes were involved in an air war over China. What was to become the Sino–Japanese War in 1937 actually began with a Japanese incursion in Manchuria in 1931. This conflict festered for the next six years.

In that period, pilots from the US, Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and probably Germany took part in battles in the skies over China. With the exception of the Italian and Russian contingents, which were officially sanctioned by their governments, the pilots who trained the Chinese and who fought for them were adventurers, soldiers of fortune, and out-of-work military professionals. Most of them were Americans. Many historians consider this hit-or-miss, bloody little air war to be a backwater of events. Yet the battles fought by these early warriors laid the groundwork for a massive air war over China, Southeast Asia, the Mariana Islands, and the Japanese homeland.
The First Casualty
The first American aviator to die in combat against the Japanese, Robert Short, was killed Feb. 22, 1932. Short, a native of Tacoma, Wash., had been hired by the L.E. Gale Co. to fly and sell Boeing fighters in China.
In July 1932, the Chinese flying school saw the arrival of its first American military instructor pilots. They were led by John H. Jouett, who had been separated from the Army Air Corps as a consequence of budget cutbacks. China accorded Jouett the rank of colonel. He arrived in the company of other involuntarily retired pilots, all of whom retained their reserve ranks. Each recruit was cautioned to keep his contract  with the CAF secret, part of a vain
attempt to keep Japan from figuring out what was going on.
Jouett immediately set about the task of turning the CAF flying school at Shien Chiao into an Asian Randolph Field, establishing an immediate program to upgrade the physical plant of the base.
Jouett annually cranked out graduating classes of 100 Chinese cadets until the contract expired in 1935 and he returned to America.

 In 1938, both an American group of volunteers and a Soviet contingent were stationed in Hankow. Soviet aircraft in China included Tupolev bombers and Polikarpov fighters. The Japanese Army had captured this one in Manchuria
In early 1937, however, an American friend, then serving in China, relayed to Chennault an offer from Madame Chiang to join the anti–Japanese effort. Chennault was more than ready for an opportunity such as this and arrived in China at the end of May 1937. He stayed for eight years. He first served as aviation advisor (and de-facto air chief of staff) to the Kuomintang in the period 1937–41. During that time, he organized the 14th Volunteer Bombardment Squadron
Organized under Chennault’s leadership in the autumn of 1937, the 14th VBS (which some sources refer to as the  International Air Squadron) was the first predominantly American volunteer combat group in China. Chennault’s pilot roster never numbered more than a dozen, even counting the odd French adventurer who occasionally would show up
The 14th VBS was stationed at Hankow in 1938 at the same time as a large Soviet contingent. The Soviet commitment in China consisted of twin-engined Tupolev SB-2 bombers and Polikarpov I-15 biplane and I-16 monoplane fighters. Following the demise of the 14th VBS, this Soviet force, amounting to over 120 aircraft, played a large role in air combat over China until they were withdrawn to deal with Japanese incursions along the Mongolian border and the outbreak of hostilities in Europe.

Among the American Pilots in China, 1932–40
James W.M. Allison
Art Chen ( Major 'Arthur' 'Art' Chin Shui-Tin )
Claire L. Chennault
Jimmy Doolittle
E.D. Dorsey
Cecil Folmar
Franklyn G. Gay
Elwyn H. Gibbon
Harvey Greenlaw
L. Roy Holbrook
John H. Jouett
W.C. “Foxy” Kent
M.R. Knight
William C. MacDonald
Christopher Mathewson
John May
George E.A. Reinburg
Harry T. Rowland
Ronald L. Sansbury
John Schweitzer
Vincent Schmidt
Ellis D. Shannon
Robert Short
Sterling Tatum
Thomas Taylor
John “Luke” Williamson
George H. Weigle
Lyman Woelpel
Robert Short was given the assignment of delivering an airplane to China.  It was an experimental  fighter plane, built by Boeing and given to the Chinese.  On his flight to Nanjing on February 19, 1932  he ran into trouble when three Japanese fighter planes engaged him in a fight.  He was able to shoot down one of them, killing a Lieutenant Kidokoro.  At this point the other two broke off the engagement  and Short continued on to his destination.
Robert Short’s funeral was delayed a month so his mother and brother could attend what became in China the largest funeral ever given a white man.  Over 500,000 people filled the streets of Shanghai.   

The prominent Chinese banker, T. V. Soong, speaking for the Chinese Government,  said, “Robert Short, a friend from a distant land, flew out of the sky and gave his life . . . to the  Chinese people this act of courage and sacrifice was electrifying.”  Posthumously, Hero Short was created a Chinese Colonel.

The 14th VBS was the first predominantly American volunteer combat group in China. They paved the way for the American Volunteer Group—the Flying Tigers— like (l–r) John Alison, David Hill, Albert Baumler, and Mack Mitchell.

Interesting a CAMCO "plant" was stationed at Shien Chiao :
Bruce Gardner Leighton - Early Navy Aviator - 1892 - 1965
Airplanes for China during the "China Incident"

From 1937-1939, Leighton was in China as Vice president of Intercontinent Corporation and its subsidiary, the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Co. (CAMCO), a joint venture with the Chinese Government in which Curtiss-Wright and Douglas Aircraft had an interest. William D. Pawley, the leading commercial agent for US aircraft manufacturers, was the President of both Intercontinent and CAMCO. As Pawley was often away on business in Europe and the US, Leighton ran the operations in China.

The core of Intercontinent's activity was the sale, assembly and maintenance of aircraft used by the Chinese Air Force (CAF). Early Bird George Arnold ran the first CAMCO plant at Hangchow from its inception in 1934 until August 1937 when the Japanese bombed it out. Soon thereafter Arnold returned to the United States to take up a post at Curtiss-Wright in Buffalo. ( see note from his son below)

From 1937 to 1939, Leighton oversaw the construction of other CAMCO plants in the interior of China. The Hangchow plant was relocated to Hankow in the autumn of 1937. After the fall of Hankow to the Japanese in late October 1938, a new factory site was acquired in December 1938 in Yunnan province close to the border with Burma and its important port and rail facilities. There were also three other repair units at Chengtu, Hengyang and Kunming. The Loiwing factory complex on the Salween River along the Burmese border began production on 30 Curtiss-Wright Hawk III pursuit planes in July 1939. It carried on with assembly of other CW pursuits and interceptors, Vultees and maintenance operations for the CAF and the Flying Tigers until Japanese bombers destroyed it in April 1942.
(George B. Arnold), was in charge of Central Aircraft's (CAMCO) plant in Shien Chiao (near Hangchow) from 1934 to 1937 when it was bombed out.

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Arthur Chin - Major Arthur Chin (Chinese: 陳瑞鈿; pinyin: Chén Ruìtián; Cantonese: Chan Sui-Tin; October 23, 1913 - September 3, 1997) was an American pilot and a Second Sino-Japanese War fighter ace.

Chin was born in Portland, Oregon to a Chinese father of Cantonese origin and a mother of Peruvian background. Motivated by the Japanese invasion of China, Chin enrolled in flight school in 1932. Along with 15 other Chinese Americans, he left for China and joined the Guangdong Provincial Air Force as the first and original group of American volunteer combat aviators, and ultimately integrated into the central government's air force under the KMT. After completion of additional aerial-gunnery training in Munich Germany, he returned to China for combat duty in which he was credited with destroying nine enemy aircraft between 1937-1939. In 1939, while flying a Gloster Gladiator, the fighter in which he scored 6.5 of his 8.5 aerial victories, he was hit by enemy fire and forced to bail out of his burning aircraft, and although he parachuted to safety, he suffered serious burn injuries. Nevertheless, after several years of surgery and recovery, and an escape from the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong,[1] he returned to China in 1944 to fly supplies over the Himalayas, a route known as the "Hump".

Chin is recognized as America's first ace in World War II. A half-century after the war ended, the U.S. government recognized Chin as an American veteran by awarding him the Distinguished Flying Cross. About a month after Chin died, on October 4, 1997, he was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the American Airpower Heritage Museum in Midland, Texas as the first American ace of World War II.

After his aviation career, Chin became a postal worker in his hometown of Portland. On January 29, 2008, Congressman Representative David Wu (D-Oregon) introduced House Resolution 5220 to name a United States Post Office in Aloha, Oregon after Major Arthur Chin as the "Major Arthur Chin Post Office Building". It was unanimously approved by the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. President Bush signed it into law on May 7, 2008

CNAC Captain Arthur S.T. Chin

Art Chen ( Major 'Arthur' 'Art' Chin Shui-Tin )

Chin Shui-Tin (to the right) in front of a Polikarpov I-15bis. (A Russian Biplane)

Art Chin was born on 23 October 1913 in Portland, Oregon. His father was from Toyshan county, Guangdong (Kwangtung) province, China and his mother was from Peru.

He was one of a group of 15 Americans of Chinese descent who were able to start flying in the US in the early 1930s, at Al Greenwood's flying school in Portland. After finishing primary training in the US, they offered themselves to the Cantonese Air Force, and on 1 December 1932 he was accepted as a Warrant Probationary Pilot. He was promoted to Second Lieutenant on 23 February 1933.

He completed his flight training in Germany in 1936 receiving air-to-air gunnery training from the Luftwaffe at Laager Lechtfeld. On 1 September 1936, he was promoted to First Lieutenant, as a flight leader in the 6th Squadron.

He served as a flight instructor from February to June 1937, and joined the 28th Pursuit Squadron, 5th Pursuit Group on 10 June 1937, as Vice Commander.
The Polikarpov I-15 (Russian: И-15) was a Soviet biplane fighter aircraft of the 1930s. Nicknamed Chaika (Russian: И-15 Чайка, "Seagull") because of its gulled upper wings,[2][3] it was operated in large numbers by the Soviet Air Force, and together with the Polikarpov I-16 monoplane, was one of the standard fighters of the Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War, where it was called Chato (snub-nose) in the Republican Air Force, or "Curtiss" (because its resemblance to Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk) in the Nationalist Air Force
In August 1937, the Chinese Kuomintang Government signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR. And, in autumn of the same year, the Soviet Union commenced to ship I-15s as a part of a programme of military aid to the Chinese Air Force (CAF) in its defensive war against Japan. More than 250 Soviet pilots volunteered to fly the 255 I-15s supplied to China in autumn 1937. By 1939, the total number of Polikarpov biplanes delivered to CAF reached 347 I-15/I-15bis.[7] The I-15bis saw a great amount of action in Manchuria and in the various border clashes between the Russians and the Japanese.

In 1937, I-15s in the hands of the Chinese Nationalist Air Force fought against invading Japanese, where the tough biplane began to meet its match in some of the newer, faster Japanese monoplanes. In 1939 Polikarpov fighters were extensively used during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol fought around the Khalkhin Gol River, in Soviet-Mongolian province of Doronod. This short war (11 May-15 September 1939) involved more than 600 planes. When hostilities commenced, the only I-15bis in the area, were 14 aircraft of 70th IAP. Their number increased in the following weeks: on 23 May, 35 I-15bis a from 22nd IAP arrived from the Trans-Baikal region. However the Polikarpov pilots had been hastily trained and they suffered heavy losses against the more experienced Japanese. During this conflict, Soviet Union and Japan lost more than 200 aircraft each

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Peiping Lily Lee Held for Observation as Spy

This was a headline in The New York Times on Nov. 21, 1936. The article read:

"Peiping Lily Lee, glamorous wartime party girl who is suspected of being a wartime Mata Hari, is being detained by Chinese authorities today for "observation."

Suspected of being a spy for the Japanese, she was arrested in 1938 in Chungking, but through the help of Thomas and others who vouched for her innocence, was released after several months in prison — just moments before she was to be shot.

Considering the history of China led to the Korean Conflict and the Vietnam Conflict, it is interesting how the finances worked out.

Reference Links:


In accordance with the Silver Purchase Act passed by the US Congress in June 1934, the US Treasury began massive purchases of silver worldwide. Two countries were especially concerned: Mexico, at that time an important silver producer, and China whose monetary system was based on silver in spite of the fact that the country was not a substantial producer. As a result of the American purchases the price of silver tripled which was indeed one of the objectives of the Silver Act. While Mexico profited, this price increase was detrimental to China in several respects: it increased the foreign debt based on silver, it drained silver from the whole country toward the financial center of Shanghai thus bringing about a country-wide deflation and at the time a speculation frenzy lead by major banks controlled by the Nationalists.

Due to the silver shortage, the Nationlist government decided in November 1935 to nationalize silver and to issue a fiat paper money. This move emulated a similar action for gold made by the Roosevelt administration in March 1933. The issuance of such an unbacked currency eventually led to the hyper inflation of the late 1940s.

Jan 31, 1940: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek is hastening his measures to consolidate Chinese control of Tibet, according to advices from Chungking today, and expects during this year to make that formerly semi-independent State an integral part of Nationalist China. A 6-year old child has been appointed as Dalai Lama. (NYT p. Cool
[This article (and a number of similar articles given below, see in particular the articles about uprisings in 1947 and 1949) shows that the control of the nationalist government over southern China also came to include Tibet. The thirteenth Dalai Lama, political pontiff of Tibet, had died in 1933]
Mar 26, 1945: The Comptroller of the United States approved the use of no-rate currency by American naval forces in China. No-rate Chinese National Currency, or “Funny Money” as some Rice Paddy Navy boys called it, was regular Chinese currency issued by the central givernment to the DisbursingOfficer, China (DOCHINA), for expenditure by their agents without determination of a definite rate of exchange or means of settlement between the two governments. There was no limit as to the amounts which might be drawn from China by these officers. It must be added that according to SACO rules most locally manufactured material, facilities or services were being furnished gratis by the Chinese.

On 7 July 1945, an Army courier dropped 20 wooden cases at the Kunmimg airport. When one of the cases was opened, it appeared to contain 50 million CN (Chinese National) dollars in crisp, new banknotes printed by the American Bank Note Company. Altogether the cases contained one billion CN dollars. At that time this represented 1000/2900 = 0.34 million US dollar. In September 1945, this money was carried from Kunming to Shanghai and Tsingtao where it was distributed to agent officers of American warships which were in the port, masters of merchant vessels, news correspondents, American banking institutions and other accredited persons.

On 31 August 1946, the Republic of China signed an agreement with the United States in which she aquitted America for all advances of Chinese National currency made to the US Navy, US Army and other Government agencies as one of the conditions under which she purchased America’s surplus property in the Western Pacific.

DOCHINA was disestablished on 31 December 1946. During the 3 years it was operative, DOCHINA received CN$ 16.5 billions 50 (Stratton 1950, p. 195, 200, 207, 210, 219, 356)

[In short, the “Funny Money” was Chinese money put at the disposal of American forces in China. One may wonder why this currency was printed by an American company. According to an agreement negotiated in 1914 the American Bank Note Company would print Chinese notes, bonds and stamps (NYT 1 April 1914, p. 4); this agreement remained in force until the end of the Nationalist rule in China.]

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The Hoover Institution Library and Archives - Stanford University - Report 2004: Library and Archives

T. V. Soong worked at the highest levels in Washington to marshal support for the Republic of China: left to right, Henry L. Stimson (U.S. secretary of war), (Manhattan Project) James V. Forrestal (Murder/suicide) (U.S. secretary of the navy), President Harry S. Truman, T. V. Soong, and Edward R. Stettinius (U.S. secretary of state) (US Steel - UN/Yalta)  . Photograph: T. V. Soong papers, Hoover Archives.

Selections of the vast papers of T. V. Soong, finance minister of China and foreign minister in World War II, have been deposited at Hoover since the 1970s. Much of the Soong collection was restricted during the lifetime of Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Soong’s sister) out of respect for her privacy.

The collection was significantly enhanced in 2004, when the family of T. V. Soong not only opened up the restricted materials in the Hoover Archives but added substantial documentation from the family files. Those records document Soong’s close relationship with President Roosevelt, Soong’s role in marshaling U.S. support for China in World War II, and his family’s role in gaining U.S. support for Taiwan during the cold war. The papers reveal the inside story (never before completely understood) of General Stilwell’s removal from power in 1944. Another revelation is the exact status of the Soong family finances, long a subject of intense speculation.

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How China Was Stolen - Silver Purchase Act of 1934

In the spring of 1928, T.V. Soong (Chiang’s Triad-connected brother-in-law) forced the Shanghai banks to become dependent on high-interest "guaranteed" government bonds. Skeptical bankers were arrested. By 1932, Chinese banks located in Shanghai were stuck with between 50 per cent and 80 per cent of Nationalist government bonds.

Also in 1928 Soong founded a government "Central Bank" (patterned on the US Federal Reserve), the "State Bank of the Republic of China." Soong appointed many of the directors of private banks to a figurehead board of directors of the Central Bank. Nationalist officials who controlled the issuance of government bonds often gained seats on the boards of private banks. Just as in the US, those with inside information on Central Bank manipulations quickly became a privileged class of kleptocrats.

In June 1934 the Silver Purchase Act was passed. This Act instructed the United States Treasury to purchase silver until the world price of silver rose above $1.29 per ounce, or until the monetary value of the U.S. silver stock reached one-third the monetary value of the gold stock. (Note that this huge US government expenditure occurred at the worst time in the US Great Depression, when most ordinary Americans were struggling desperately to avoid bankruptcy).

OSS in Action: The Pacific and the Far East

US Navy's Secret war in China


(p. 47) –

White…was to investigate rumors that Detachment 101…organized by Garland Williams…was providing opium to Burmese guerrillas fighting the Japanese…the rumors were true…America’s spymasters would never sever the drug-smuggling connections they established during the war, nor could the FBN exert any influence over the situation. On the contrary, the FBN assumed a collateral role in narcotics-related espionage activities…The Luciano Project and Truth Drug programs are examples, as was the formation of the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO) by Navy Secretary Frank Knox, OSS chief William Donovan, and Chiang Kai-shek’s intelligence chief, General Tai Li. SACO would effectively put an end to any drug control over Nationalist China. SACO went into action in 1943, when a team of Americans under Treasury Agent…which included FBN agents…It was an open secret that Tai Li’s agents escorted opium caravans…and used Red Cross operations as a front for selling opium to the Japanese…he received the same immunity afforded Detachment 101.  

Edward R. Stettinius (U.S. secretary of state) (War Supplier JP Morgan - UN/Yalta),_Jr.
he attended the University of Virginia until 1924, leaving without a degree; while at Virginia he became a member of the secret Seven Society
in 1934 he returned to the private sector when he joined US Steel where he eventually become a chairman of the board in 1938.

In November 1944 Stettinius succeeded Secretary of State Cordell Hull due to Hull's poor health. In this capacity, he helped arrange the Dumbarton Oaks conference accompanied the US delegation to the Yalta Conference. Roosevelt's personal approach to foreign policy prevented Stettinius from making major contributions at these conferences.

Stettinius, as chairman of the US delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization, was instrumental in the formation of the United Nations and was present at its official founding on June 26, 1945. Soon afterward, President Truman required Stettinius to resign as Secretary of State. He was offered the position of United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Stettinius resigned from this position in June 1946, after which he became critical of what he saw as Truman's refusal to use the UN as a tool to resolve tensions with the Soviet Union. Charles W. Yost, Stettinius' aide, in the State Department and at the conference, followed him as UN Ambassador twenty-six years later.

His daddy was a War supplier for JP Morgan in WWI :
At the beginning of World War I, Stettinius went to work for J. P. Morgan and Company, where he worked as chief buyer of war supplies for the Allies, overseeing a work force of around 150 people. When the United States entered the war, he went to work for the War Department, in charge of procurement and production of supplies for the Army. On April 6, 1918, he became Assistant Secretary of War.


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