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Dr. Chaim Weizmann - Prez World Zionist Organization - Israel gets the bomb

If you search on Weizmann, you get alot of interesting history...

Quote Months after Israel was formed, Rothschild was involved with Chaim Weizmann in setting up a special nuclear physics department in a scientific institute in Rehovoth. The establishment was named after Weizmann, the nation's first president and himself a distinguished biochemist.

The Weizmann Institute - Its aim even in those heady days of 1948 was to build nuclear weapons for Israel.

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Chaim Weizmann  1874 - 1952
Chaim Weizmann was born in 1874 to a traditional Jewish family in the small town of Motol in White Russia (Belarus). After graduating with honors from the Real-Gymnasium in Pinsk, he decided to establish himself professionally in order to be able to contribute to the development of science in the Land of Israel. He chose to study chemistry in Germany and Switzerland, where he would meet his future wife, Vera, who would become his partner in Zionist activity. In 1899 he was awarded a doctoral degree in organic chemistry by the University of Fribourg in Switzerland.
Deeply influenced by the views of Ahad Ha’am and Herzl, Weizmann became involved in Zionist activity, alongside Leo Motzkin, Nahman Syrkin, and Shmaryahu Levin. He felt that Judaism implied not merely religion but peoplehood. Possessing their own language, culture, and common historical memory, the Jewish people were entitled to return to their historical land and live there in safety.
Weizmann therefore rejected the idea that Uganda could replace the Land of Israel as a homeland for the Jews. At the same time, he began working as a scientist at the University of Manchester in England, a nation which he viewed as one of legal freedoms, moderation, and political realism.

A skilled negotiator, Weizmann secured for himself the status of representative of a government in exile. That was how he obtained, with arduous effort, the coveted Balfour Declaration on November 2, 1917. In it, the British government recognized the right of the Jewish people to establish a national home in the Land of Israel. Weizmann: “We begin a new chapter. From now on, we – the Jews – will determine how the Declaration is to be translated into reality.”

As befits a scientist, Weizmann pursued his goals systematically, step by step. Once the declared right to the territory was obtained, he worked to strengthen and anchor it in reality.
He departed for the Land of Israel at the head of a delegation under British government auspices, and found the Jewish settlers engaged in the dynamic process of building and aliyah. Tel Aviv, the first Hebrew city, arose from the sands.
Understanding that Jews and Arabs would have to live together in the Land of Israel, Weizmann strove to create peaceful coexistence between the two peoples. Thus he met in Aqaba with Emir Faisal, leader of the Arab national movement. Faisal expressed sympathy for the Zionist cause, which he felt was similar to the Arabs’ national aspirations. [ Laurence of Arabia ]
In 1919, Weizmann and Faisal signed an agreement of cooperation between the two national movements, Jewish and Arab, for the development of the Land of Israel.

1918. Emir Faisal I and Chaim Weizmann (left, also wearing Arab outfit as a sign of friendship) Weizmann first met Feisal in June 1918, during the British advance from the South against the Ottoman Empire in World War I. -
 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement

Louis Brandeis in Palestine (center, in pith helmet)  with Chaim Weizmann and British soldiers, 1919
At a crucial moment in the deliberations of the British government regarding the Balfour Declaration, American support was needed.

Brandeis apparently got President Wilson to reverse his policy of non-intervention, favored by his adviser Colonel House, and to provide the necessary support, still insisting that it must not be made public.  

Brandeis helped to organize the 1918 Pittsburgh conference of the Zionist Organization of America, which evolved from the American Zionist Federation and which, at that time, was truly representative of American Jewry. T

The platform was remarkable for its synthesis of Zionist and progressive ideals, and many of its ideas seemed to coincide with those of the Zionist leadership in Palestine. The platform called for "political and civil equality" regardless of "race, sex or faith," public ownership of land, natural resources and public utilities, the application of the "cooperative principle," and free public instruction in Hebrew for all grades and subjects, Brandeis headed the committee that organized the American Jewish Congress, which adopted a Zionist platform and helped to bring about support of the Balfour Declaration and the Jewish national home in Palestine by the American Jewish Committee, heretofore a bastion of anti-Zionist sentiment.

In 1919 Brandeis toured Palestine with Chaim Weizmann for the first and only time, and in 1920 he travelled to the Zionist convention on London. 
In 1921, Weizmann was elected President of the World Zionist Organization.

He visited the United States and, together with Albert Einstein, undertook a fundraising campaign to advance the Zionist cause.

Albert Einstein and his wife Elsa pose with Chaim Weizmann, Chaim's wife Dr. Vera Weizmann, and other notable Zionist leaders in this 1921 photograph. Einstein was himself a believer in Zionism and did what he could to help the cause.

In 1925, together with Lord Balfour, Weizmann inaugurated the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem. He said: “We must create a high culture, based on Jewish morality, and make it a center of human culture.”

Opening Hebrew University - Weizmann, Balfour, British High Commissioner Samuels
The First Board of Governors of the University, chaired by Dr. Weizmann includes Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Harry Sacher and Felix M. Warburg

Chaim Weizmann, the leader of the World Zionist Organization, and Lord Arthur James Balfour, British Foreign Secretary
Placing great emphasis on integrating science and industry, Weizmann promoted the establishment of advanced enterprises such as the phosphates plant at the Dead Sea and the hydroelectric power plant at Naharayim. However, despite renewed growth, the Jewish settlement was afflicted by an economic crisis. To overcome this crisis Weizmann established the Jewish Agency in 1929.
As a result of the bloody events of 1929, Lord Passfield, British Colonial Secretary at that time, who viewed the Arab riots as a natural defense against Jewish aliyah to the Land of Israel, published the White Paper in the name of the British government. England reneged on the promises made in the Balfour Declaration, and the Zionist endeavor fell upon trying times.
Annual Report 2009 » Honorary Fellows of the Weizmann Institute of Science

1969 - Walworth Barbour - [ Bilderberger - U.S. Amb. to Israel  from 1961 to 1973 - helped in the Dimona Nuclear Project ]

see: Bilderberger's in the Kennedy Administration  

1963 - John F. Kennedy (Assassinated that year - was this an celebration award?)

1962 - Lord (Victor) Rothschild [ Spy ]
Lord Victor Rothschild's involvement with the Peace Movement and Israel's Nuclear Bomb

Roland Perry, The Fifth Man (Pan Books, London, 1994):

{p. xxi} The Fifth Man was Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild (1910 to 1990), better known as the third Lord Rothschild. He was the British head of the famous banking dynasty ...

{p. 221} Months after Israel was formed, Rothschild was involved with Chaim Weizmann in setting up a special nuclear physics department

{p. 222} in a scientific institute in Rehovoth. The establishment was named after Weizmann, the nation's first president and himself a distinguished biochemist.

Its aim even in those heady days of 1948 was to build nuclear weapons for Israel. It became the nation's best kept secret and the most fervent desire of the new nation's founders. They never wanted their race to be threatened with another Holocaust. Atomic weapons would be the ultimate deterrent to future Hitlers

Yet when the idea for an Israeli bomb was first conceived, the Soviet Union was still a year away from its own first trial blast. The Russians were expecting to detonate, literally after seven years hard labour, when it should have taken perhaps a century of normal research. They had thrown enormous resources, thousands of scientists and strong spy networks at the problem. Israel would have to copy that approach from a standing start. It had limited resources and a trickle of Jewish technicians. But it did have espionage networks.

The dream of an Israeli bomb was ambitious indeed, but it spurred Rothschild to keep abreast of all things nuclear so he could pass on data to the Weizmann Institute, which was planning a nuclear reactor at Dimona in the Negev Desert.

Under a modified guise of concern about the spread and dangers of nuclear weapons, he was able to keep contact with appropriate scientists around the world. He began this official and legitimate process at the end of the Second World War by becoming an expert on fallout, which allowed him to monitor the Manhattan project. He continued in the 1950s, even on occasions attending informal conferences on controlling nuclear weapons held by leading British atomic scientists, who were beginning to comprehend and assess their creation.

The Dane, Niels Bohr, had stimulated consciences post-war by arguing that nuclear matters belonged to an 'open world', with which the Russians - desperate to build a nuclear arsenal - agreed wholeheartedly. He had plenty of support from the scientific community in the US too, but Washington was never going to support 'the free interchange of ideas' with those dangerous Russians, even if it had nothing to do with detail about bomb technology.

Bohr's idea was taken up by mathematician and philosopher, Bertrand Russell, Albert Einstein and the British Atomic Scientists

{p. 223} Association, many of whose members Rothschild knew well. They set up their first conference at Pugwash, Nova Scotia, in 1955.

Rothschild assiduously kept contact with the key organizers so that his involvement always seemed natural.

Correspondence with Russell in early 1955 was typical:

Dear Russell, I would like to present the manuscript of your recent broadcast dealing with the Hydrogen Bomb to Trinity. Can you suggest any way in which I might acquire it? Yours Sincerely, Rothschild

The so-called Pugwash Conferences emerged as the scientists' response to the arms race between the US, USSR, China, Britain and France, and the dangers of fallout.

Scientists from twenty-two nations turned up and problems concerned with peace and the impact of atomic weapons on humankind were discussed. Rothschild later floated ideas about how to harness the nuclear genie for 'peaceful purposes' and not war. He urged the idea of breeder reactors for energy, of which he was a long-term supporter. What he avoided mentioning was the ease with which breeder reactors could be adapted to extract weapons-grade nudear fuel.

Everything he learnt ended up at the Weizmann Institute, which was in part his creation. (His secret support of it with information and finance was rewarded publicly in 1962 when he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Institute.)

Rothschild was not a technician like Klaus Fuchs. He could not create the weaponry for Israel. But he could inform its Intelligence leaders (with whom he was very dose as an important, secret member of Mossad) which scientists might be helpful, where the available technology might be and how it might be obtained and funded.

The Israelis sounded out several possibilities. In 1956, Shimon Peres, then director of the Defence Ministry under Moshe Dayan, had many meetings with ministers in Guy Mollet's French socialist government as they prepared for the Suez Canal operation. The French, British and Israelis planned to wrest back the Canal from President Nasser of Egypt, who had nationalized it.

{p. 224} Peres first gained the trust of the French, then he struck a deal with Defence Minister, Bourges Maunoury. In return for Israel's help over the Suez Canal, in which it would make the initial attack on Egyptian defences, the French promised to consider supplying nuclear plants at Dimona. Israel carried out its part at Suez, and fortuitously Maunoury replaced Mollet as prime minister. Maunoury and his foreign minister signed a top-secret agreement with Peres and Asher Ben-Natan, a Mossad agent at Israel's Defence Ministry.

In it, the French promised to supply a powerful 24-megawatt reactor, the technical know-how to run it, and some uranium. The secret deal was only known to about a dozen individuals, induding Rothschild, and with good reason. The fine print of the document allowed for the inclusion of equipment which would permit the Israelis to produce weapons-grade nuclear fuel.

In 1957, French engineers began building the two-storey reactor facility at Dimona on the edge of the Negev Desert, which secretly went down six levels below ground. The subterranean construction would be the place where nuclear weapons would be built. With several Mossad officers in attendance, the engineers also dug an 80-foot deep crater in the sand. In it they buried Machon 2 - a unit which would allow the Israelis to extract weapons grade plutonium, the fuel for the bomb
Israel Technologies Transfers

In the weird reality of the Middle East, things seldom are what they look. Time and again I have read about Israel’s scientific capabilities in articles plagued with large amounts of irrelevant statistics. In the past, while making academic research on topics defined as pure science, I found myself taking a close look at a very impure transfer of Soviet military technology from a laboratory in Kazakhstan to Israel and discovered an overlooked aspect of Israel’s scientific apparatus.

Overlooked, but strategic in its importance, Israel technologies transfers’ policy is intrinsically related to the story of the state and to at least two well known institutions: the Weizmann Institute and the Negev Nuclear Research Center (e.g. Dimona) .

The Weizmann Institute of Science

Having graduated from the Weizmann Institute of Science and thus knowing it well, I find time and again misleading information regarding its installations.

The institute was conceived by Dr. Chaim Weizmann, who would later become the first President of the State of Israel, in 1933.

One year later in 1934, the Daniel Sieff Research Institute was established, and Dr. Weizmann got a lab, alongside ten other full-time researchers in organic chemistry and biochemistry;

even in those early days the research performed there was defined as multidisciplinary. The institute is located on Rehovot’s western entry, southeast of Tel Aviv. It is probably one of the greenest spots in the country, though this purity doesn’t extend to its activities.

Throughout WWII and the 1948 War, the institute scientists were deeply involved in the war efforts, under Dr. Weizmann’s direction.

By the time it was dedicated in 1949, the Weizmann Institute (which includes the Daniel Sieff Research Institute) had sixty labs in nine fields of research, including organic, inorganic and bio-chemistry, optics and electronics, bacteriology and biophysics, polymer and isotope research, and applied mathematics. Later, the Feinberg Graduate School was established in 1958, and its first PhD was conferred in 1964.

Secret Protocol

Meanwhile, the State of Israel was created, and in October 1956 signed the secret Protocol of Sèvres between the governments of Israel, France and the UK. The protocol was a plot to topple Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser, by invading and occupying parts of Egypt in response to Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26 of that year. The planning for and the agreements contained in the protocol began the Suez War on October 29, 1956.

On October 22, Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion, Director General of the Ministry of Defense Shimon Peres and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces Moshe Dayan secretly travelled from Israel to Sèvres to meet the French Minister of Defence Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury, Minister of Foreign Affairs Christian Pineau and Chief of Staff of the French Armed Forces General Maurice Challe, and British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd and his assistant Sir Patrick Dean.

After two days of negotiations a seven point’s agreement was signed by Ben-Gurion, Pineau and Dean.

The protocol directly led to the Suez War, which is of no interest to this article, but also to a close cooperation between the French and Israeli administrations.

Negev Nuclear Research Center

About thirteen kilometers to the south-east of the city of Dimona is the Negev Nuclear Research Center, Israel’s largest nuclear facility. Its construction began in 1958, with French assistance according to the abovementioned Protocol of Sèvres.

The contents of the facility are far less interesting than the political results of the secret protocol and how it had shaped Israeli research capabilities and policies. Let’s skip the nukes and take a close look at the serious stuff.

Rehovot versus Dimona

The isotope research unit of the Weizmann Institute is where the first efforts of Israel to develop nuclear technologies took place, disguised as pure science research.

Then the Negev Nuclear Research Center was created and with it a conflict: How should the research be performed? Where: Rehovot or Dimona? Who would get the prestige, resources and salaries? The solution of the problem was unexpected.

Back then, the Director General of the Ministry of Defense, Shimon Peres, took a decision that shaped the course of the country’s scientific efforts until now. Instead of developing the technologies from zero – as the Weizmann Institute proposed - he decided to appropriate as much as possible from other sources, letting the scientists just adapt the technologies to the specific needs defined by the Israeli Administration. He claimed the state was too small and poor to develop the whole range of technologies needed.

Both, Rehovot and Dimona were relegated to a lesser and much more sinister status. Scientific spooks.

Since then, the Mossad and Israeli industries are occupied day and night in getting technologies from abroad, while the scientists in Dimona and Rehovot are busy adapting them. Of course, there is also some pure research performed in both, that’s how the basic training for the more important tasks is achieved.

On Three Techniques

I opened this article mentioning a technology brought from Kazakhstan in the nineties. Buying technologies is always possible, especially in the open market created by the collapse of the Soviet Union.

In this case the Israel’s Ministry of Defense funneled funds through an institute lab. Having been a research student at that lab, I looked fascinated at the process and then left the institute as fast as possible. That wasn’t my idea of pure scientific research.

Many people around the world are aware of the State of Israel interests and tactics, and offer the technologies out of their own will. After I left the institute, I found myself being requested by Dow Chemical to transfer a classified military technology developed by them for the American Army to Israel. In the complex sequence of events that followed their approach, my Christianity was found out and put to test by the state. Soon afterwards, I found myself a refugee.

These two types of transfer are described in my book The Cross of Bethlehem. In the book there is also a close look at another side of this reality: the Shin-Beth places full-time informants in all academic institutions. Learning how to avoid them is part of the self-training of any scientist growing up there.

The Cross of Bethlehem: The Memoirs of a Refugee [Paperback]
Ro'i Tov (Author), Corinne Lynch (Editor)

Product Description
The Cross of Bethlehem is a memoir of a Christian Israeli military officer caught in the crosshairs between a country that demands total obedience, even if that means firing on rock-throwing women and children, and following his conscience.

In a story of faith and courage, tragedy and hope, the author, Ro’i Tov, shares the heartache of growing up an outsider in the tight-knit kibbutzim along the Jordan Valley. It is here that his sharp intelligence, instead of buying him the freedom he so desperately desires, traps him in a company without a moral compass and a military that challenges his spiritual and moral beliefs. When he leaves Israel and threatens to tell the world what he has witnessed, he finds himself on a high-stakes journey that takes him from Thailand to China, from the US to South America. Only time will tell if justice will prevail and faith will conquer fear so that God’s message of love and peace can be revealed.

This book was one that I also could not put down. It was difficult to obtain the book,.... Mr. Tov is quite an extraordinary man.

Back then, the Director General of the Ministry of Defense, Shimon Peres, took a decision that shaped the course of the country’s scientific efforts until now. Instead of developing the technologies from zero – as the Weizmann Institute proposed - he decided to appropriate as much as possible from other sources, letting the scientists just adapt the technologies to the specific needs defined by the Israeli Administration. He claimed the state was too small and poor to develop the whole range of technologies needed.
Israeli Nuclear Program Pioneered by Shimon Peres

The Risk Report
Volume 2 Number 4 (July-August 1996)

In December 1995, former Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres drew world headlines for his casual remark to a group of Israeli journalists in Tel Aviv: "Give me peace and we will give up the nuclear program--this is the whole story." Though the media heralded this announcement, it reflected nothing more than longstanding policy.

For years, Israel has said that it would negotiate the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East after the establishment of lasting peace. Shimon Peres has told Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak that Israel would be willing to negotiate the signing of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty within two years after the establishment of "regional peace."

But Peres has never said what such a peace would include. He has preferred ambiguity in this and much else in Israel's nuclear diplomacy. In fact, it was Peres who came up with Israel's most often repeated nuclear declaration.

At a April 1963 meeting in the White House, Peres responded to President John F. Kennedy's questions about Israel's nuclear program by saying: "Israel will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons to the Middle East." Two years later, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol elevated Peres's words to Israel's official nuclear line.

In 1953, at age 30, Shimon Peres was appointed by Israel's first prime minister, David Ben Gurion, to become Director-General of the Ministry of Defense. Within three years, Peres had laid the foundation for Israel's nuclear weapon program.

He picked France as the major supplier, arranged the sale of a nuclear reactor, and spent the next decade overseeing the construction of the Dimona nuclear weapon production complex.

In his memoirs, "Battling for Peace," Peres describes his nuclear accomplishments leading up to the 1967 Arab-Israeli war: "My contribution during that dramatic period was something that I still cannot write about openly for reasons of state security. After Dayan was appointed defense minister I submitted to him a certain proposal which ... would have deterred the Arabs and prevented the war."

Peres now says that Israel has come a long way from a young country that needed Dimona to deter war to "a strong country on the brink of peace." He credits Israel's early investment in Dimona as responsible for the Arab world's later steps toward peace, including Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's decision to come to Jerusalem in 1977.

Secret Protocol

Meanwhile, the State of Israel was created, and in October 1956 signed the secret Protocol of Sèvres between the governments of Israel, France and the UK. The protocol was a plot to topple Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser, by invading and occupying parts of Egypt in response to Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26 of that year. The planning for and the agreements contained in the protocol began the Suez War on October 29, 1956.
The Protocol of Sèvres,1956: Anatomy of a War Plot
Avi Shlaim

International Affairs, 73:3 (1997), 509-530.

Reprinted in David Tal, ed., The 1956 War: Collusion and Rivalry in the Middle East (London: Frank Cass, 2001), 119-43.
Secrecy and the sources on Sèvres

On 24 October 1956, in a private villa in Sèvres on the outskirts of Paris, representatives of the British, French, and Israeli governments, at the end of a three-day meeting which was concealed behind a thick veil of secrecy, signed a most curious document which later came to be known as the Protocol of Sèvres.  

The document set out in precise detail the plan of the three governments to attack Egypt.  The plan, in a nutshell, was that Israel would attack the Egyptian army near the Suez Canal, and that this attack would serve as the pretext for an Anglo-French military intervention.  Written in French and typed in three copies, this Protocole was signed by Patrick Dean, an Assistant Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office for Britain, by foreign minister Christian Pineau for France, and by prime minister David Ben-Gurion for Israel.  To the end of his days Sir Anthony Eden, the driving force on the British side on the road to war, denied that there had been any collusion with Israel or even foreknowledge that Israel would attack Egypt.  The Protocol of Sèvres tells a different story.  The British copy was in fact destroyed on Eden’s orders, the French copy was lost, and the Israeli copy was kept under lock and key in the Ben-Gurion Archives in Sede-Boker.  In 1996 permission was given to photocopy the protocol for a BBC documentary shown on the fortieth anniversary of the Suez War.[1]  

With the release of the protocol, the tripartite meeting at Sèvres became not only the most famous but also the best-documented war plot in modern history.
On 22 October, Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion, Director General of the Ministry of Defense Shimon Peres and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces Moshe Dayan secretly travelled from Israel to an isolated house in Sèvres to meet the French Minister of Defence Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury, Minister of Foreign Affairs Christian Pineau and Chief of Staff of the French Armed Forces General Maurice Challe, and British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd and his assistant Sir Patrick Dean.[1]
Together, they and their aides secretly planned a two-step invasion of Egypt, including the cover story.

First Israel would attack Egypt in the Sinai, and then

Britain and France would invade on the pretext of "separating the combatants" and protecting the canal,[2] under the terms of the 1954 Anglo-Egyptian agreement to withdraw all British forces from Egypt.

One of the most painstaking aspects was formulating a plan both Britain and Israel could agree on. The Israelis distrusted the British but, as the French were not prepared to act without their British allies, they were forced to deal with them. The British maintained strong links with a number of Arab countries and did not want any involvement with Israel that might damage them.

After 48 hours of negotiations and compromise the seven points agreement was signed by Ben-Gurion, Pineau and Dean. At the insistence of the Israeli diplomats, wanting to prevent being abandoned in the middle of the invasion, each group left Sèvres with a signed copy, written in French.[3]

Although not part of the protocol, the occasion allowed Israel to secure French commitment to constructing the Negev Nuclear Research Center and the supply of natural uranium for it
Four days after the Sèvres meeting, Israeli forces invaded Egyptian territory. The British and French vetoed an American-sponsored resolution in the UN Security Council calling for an end to the Israeli invasion; they then issued their own call for both Israel and Egypt to withdraw from within 16 km of the Suez Canal. When Egypt refused, the British and French launched their own invasion to secure the Canal zone, under the guise of separating Egyptian and Israeli forces.
Walworth Barbour - [ Bilderberger - U.S. Amb. to Israel  from 1961 to 1973 - helped in the Dimona Nuclear Project ] -  Bilderberger's in the Kennedy Administration
Another and probably the primary reason for Kennedy's assassination is he fact that he made it quite clear to Israeli prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, that under no circumstances would he agree to Israel becoming a nuclear state.

The Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz states on February 5, 1999, in a Review of Avner Cohen's book "Israel and the Bomb" the following :

"The murder of American President John F. Kennedy brought to an abrupt end the massive pressure being applied by the U.S. Administration on the government of Israel to discontinue the nuclear program... The book implied that, had Kennedy remained alive, it is doubtful whether Israel would today have a nuclear option."

Bilderberger's in the Kennedy Administration  

Barbour, Walworth - Bilderberger

March 27th 1968 -  CIA Director Richard Helms and Amb. Walworth Barbour at meeting in the Cabinet Room
On this day in 1968, President Johnson held a National Security Council meeting regarding Vietnam. He also met with CIA directors Richard Helm and Ambassador Walworth Barbour.
Walworth Barbour - 1908-1982, who capped a lifetime Foreign Service career with nearly 12 years as the United States Ambassador to Israel from 1961 to 1973

Israel gets the Bomb with Bilderberger help

Although the United States government did not encourage or approve of the Israeli nuclear program, it also did nothing to stop it.

Walworth Barbour, US ambassador to Israel from 1961-73, the bomb program's crucial years, primarily saw his job as being to insulate the President from facts which might compel him to act on the nuclear issue, alledgedly saying at one point that "The President did not send me there to give him problems. He does not want to be told any bad news."

After the 1967 war, Barbour even put a stop to military attachés' intelligence collection efforts around Dimona. Even when

Barbour did authorize forwarding information, as he did in 1966 when embassy staff learned that Israel was beginning to put nuclear warheads in missiles, the message seemed to disappear into the bureaucracy and was never acted upon.

Dimona Nuke Facility

President Johnson's Closet Advisors - Benjamin Victor Cohen

Among Johnson's closest advisers during this period were several strong pro-Israel advocates, including Benjamin Cohen (who 30 years earlier was the liaison between Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis and Chaim Weizmann)
and Abe Fortas, the legendary Washington "insider."

Benjamin V. Cohen (1894 – 1983), a member of the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, had a public service career that spanned from the early New Deal through and beyond the Vietnam War era.

He served as counsel for the American Zionist Movement from 1919 - 1921. He acted as Zionist counsel to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference

Cohen's first appearance on the national scene was as a member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Brain Trust.

In 1941, during the period leading up to the entry of the United States into World War II he helped write the Lend-Lease plan.

Cohen also assisted in the drafting of the 1944 Dumbarton Oaks agreements leading to the establishment of the United Nations.

In 1945 Cohen served as the United States' chief draftsman at the Potsdam Conference.

In 1948 Cohen advised both the United States and the new state of Israel with respect to the first official exchange between those two countries.

Cohen is also associead with Tom Corcoran


After Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover he asked Felix Frankfurter to assemble a legal team to review the nation's securities laws. Frankfurter selected Corcoran, Benjamin Cohen and James Landis for the task. Corcoran, a member of the Democratic Party, readily accepted the post. Together they drafted the legislation that created the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Emma Lazarus: see: Emma Lazarus in Her World: Life and Letters  By Bette Roth Young

Of the millions of New York stories, poet Emma Lazarus' is one of the saddest, though it began happily enough. She was born in 1849, the daughter of a wealthy sugar manufacturer and a member of New York's German-speaking Jewish elite.

After 1880, New York was flooded with poor, Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. Many were fleeing pogroms, or government-led attacks on Jewish people, in Russia.

But despite their shared faith, New York's elite Jews turned up their noses at the newcomers. Emma was different. After reading an article that blamed the Jews for the pogroms, she wrote a strong reply. The Statue of Liberty committee read it and in 1883 hired her to write a poem to help raise funds to build the statue.

Now that that is not quite all :

Emma Lazarus was the fourth of seven children of Moshe Lazarus and Esther Nathan, Portuguese Sephardic Jews[4] whose families had been settled in New York since the colonial period

This links her family to the East Indies Sugar slave plantations!:

Anonymous said...
Why is Emma Lazarus so great? Read Emma Lazarus in her World. Her father owned slaves at an abusive plantation in Louisiana, then dumped all the problems on his partner (although they had a generational relationship, with the sons going into business also). The sugar cane plantation that fed Emma was visited by the Negro Bureau, for abuses, and worse, the cane was grown to feed the Lazarus booze business, and run off from the cows they bred in what is now Chelsea caused contamination in milk that killed tons of nyc kids. She was a hard-core zionist that believed in Israel as a homeland for only jews, but all europeans countries for "mixed" populations. Seriously, I wouldn't use her in an article---big time slaver. Read her poems someday, and learn the history of her slave-holding family, please.

Quote from: TahoeBlue on June 21, 2010, 01:10:04 PM

Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award 2009
Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award 2009

"Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

Emma Lazarus was the fourth of seven children of Moshe Lazarus and Esther Nathan, Portuguese Sephardic Jews[4] whose families had been settled in New York since the colonial period. ... She is known as an important forerunner of the Zionist movement. She argued for the creation of a Jewish homeland thirteen years before Herzl began to use the term Zionism.[5] Lazarus is buried in Beth-Olom Cemetery in Brooklyn.

"We must never forget those who went through those terrible trials and tribulations" said former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev at the glittering 2009 American Jewish Historical Society Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award luncheon held on March 26th at New York’s Rainbow Room. "What is dangerous is forgetfulness." The luncheon, titled "Beyond the Pale," marked two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the global realignment that followed.

Gorbachev, who was awarded AJHS' first Global Leadership Award, was joined at the event by former U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz {Bilderberg - SMOM} in conversation with PBS' Charlie Rose {Bilderberg} over their crucial roles in ending the Cold War and the emigration of some 1 million Soviet Jews. (The conversation will be broadcast on a forthcoming Charlie Rose show.)
The Gorbachev/Shultz/Rose conversation touched on Russo-American relations today, the future of nuclear arms proliferation and negotiations with Iran, optimism for the Obama and Medvedev administrations, and the role of Russian Jews in Israeli{/American} politics today.

Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award 2009:

Israeli Consul General Asaf Shariv, Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger {Bilderberg - SMOM}, Chariman Emeritus Kenneth J. Bialkin, former New York City Mayor Ed Koch and former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.

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His [Gorbachev's] role with the UN has been promoting the new NWO "Green" religion favored by the UN for the masses.  Along with such characters as Maurice Strong{Bilderberg/Rockefeller Foundation} and Al Gore{Bilderberg}, Gorbachev drafted 'The Earth Charter" intended to replace the Ten Commandments.

Opportunities for women to obtain education narrowed at the close of the eighteenth century when the Jews started to abandon their plantations for economic reasons (Europe began to produce sugar from beets and no longer depended on the Caribbean sugar cane) as well as owing to the anti-Jewish legislation on the English islands of Jamaica, Barbados and Nevis, which forbade Jews to employ Christians, limiting them to only one or two house slaves. Jews started to send their sons to study in Amsterdam, Bordeaux or the United States. Daughters could neither travel alone nor stay abroad unaccompanied. Thus, only girls who joined their brothers outside the Caribbean could obtain an academic education.

With the abandonment of the plantations, Jews turned to international commerce, creating centers of marketing with the Spanish colonies, North America, Europe and beyond, even reaching North Africa, India and China.
The heart of this commerce was the Dutch island of St. Eustatius, where the Jews were the majority of the white population. After the English occupation of the island in 1781, the center passed to St. Thomas in the Danish Virgin Islands. Another focal point was the Dutch island of Curaçao, where again Jews were the majority of the white population. With the opening of the Panama Canal, at the beginning of the twentieth century, a commercial center formed in the city of Colon, which attracted Jews from the Caribbean.
Status of Women

The frequent contacts with the outer world brought winds of change to Jewish life. The Jewish Reform movements in Germany and the United States began to influence the Jewish way of life and clashed with the Orthodox Hakhamim (rabbis) of the Caribbean, most of whom had come from the Balkans. After intense quarrels on some of the islands, compromises were reached preventing the dismemberment of the congregations. Surinam remained Orthodox; Jamaica and the Virgin Islands kept some Orthodox Sephardi customs; Panama became completely Reform (the Portuguese community). These changes also brought about a change in the status of women.
In 1844 in the Virgin Islands, the Hakham Benjamin Cohen Carillon introduced the confirmation ceremony affirming one’s becoming a member of the synagogue, with men and women having equal standing. The text of the “Certificate of Confirmation” reads as follows:
I Benjamin Cohen Carillon Minister of the Israelitish Congregation in this island, certify that on the eighth Shabat 5604 corresponding with 13 April 1844 I confirmed Hanna de Sola duly accepted as a member of the synagogue and entitled to all the rights and benefits thereof.
An eye-witness to this ceremony, a Mrs. Lazarus, relates “how beautiful the girls looked in their long white veils similar to bridal [veils]. Here was the first class confirmed on the island, the year following a class of young married women was confirmed” (Philipson 915, 180–82).

Vernona Soviet spies

I am hoping to show that the tech tranfer of the bomb to the U.S.S.R also went to Israel , or in other words , the U.S.S.R
(Stalin) getting the bomb was a cover for Israel getting the bomb thru Cambridge and Victor Rothschild....

I'll fill this in later , lets start with the  Vernona Soviet spies :
List of Americans in the Venona papers

Solomon Adler**[2]
Lona Cohen**[2]
Morris Cohen**[2], Communist Party USA & Portland Spy Ring member who was courier for Manhattan Project physicist Theodore Hall.

Harold Glasser,[2] U.S. Treasury Dept. economist, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) spokesman.

Harry Gold,[2] sentenced to 30 years for his role in the Rosenbergs' ring

Theodore Alvin Hall,[2] Manhattan Project physicist who gave plutonium purification secrets to Soviet intelligence.

Alger Hiss,[2] Lawyer involved in the establishment of the United Nations, both as a U.S. State Department and UN official.

Donald Hiss**[2]

Frank Oppenheimer**[2]
Julius Robert Oppenheimer[2], Scientific director of the Manhattan Project and chief advisor to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission

Robert Oppenheimer in front of the physics building at the Weizmann Institute

Great Atomic Scientists in Israel

“And now gentlemen, do the photographers a favor and try to look intelligent,” Professor Felix Bloch told his friends Chaim Pekeris, Niels Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, Meyer Weisgal and Amos de-Shalit. …The travel to the celebrations in Rehovot was Oppenheimer’s first trip outside the US borders: he had been among the leading figures accused by McCarthy’s commission

Allan Rosenberg[2]
Julius Rosenberg,[2] United States Army Signal Corps Laboratories, executed for role in the Rosenberg ring
Ethel Rosenberg,[2] executed for role in Rosenberg ring based on testimony of her brother, David Greenglass
Soviet Agents in the United States
Rosenberg ring

Joel Barr, met Julius Rosenberg at City CoIIege of New York, then spied with him and Al Sarant at Army Signal Corps lab in New Jersey; escaped prosecution by fleeing to Soviet bloc in 1950. Died 2007.

Max Elitcher, longtime friend of Rosenberg and Sobell from their days at CCNY before testifying against them

Klaus Fuchs, physicist who supplied information about the British and American atomic bomb research to the Soviet Union; sentenced to 14 years in the UK.

Vivian Glassman, fiancée of Joel Barr [4]
Harry Gold, courier sentenced to 30 years

David Greenglass, draftsman at Los Alamos in World War Two, gave atomic bomb drawings to his sister Ethel Rosenberg, and eventually the Soviets; sentenced to 15 years

Ruth Greenglass, escaped prosecution in exchange for her husband's testimony against his sister and brother-in-law, the Rosenbergs

Miriam Moskowitz, convicted of obstruction of justice for assisting Brothman. She was never convicted of being a spy for the Soviet Union.[6]
William Perl, active in Young Communist League at CCNY, then met Al Sarant at Columbia University; served 5 years for perjury
Morton Sobell, involved with Barr, Perl and Julius Rosenberg at CCNY; sentenced to 30 years at Alcatraz

Ethel Rosenberg, executed at Sing Sing prison near her native New York City for conspiracy to commit espionage
Julius Rosenberg, executed at Sing Sing prison near his native New York City for conspiracy to commit

Al Sarant, stole radar secrets at Army Signal Corps lab in New Jersey, then he and his mistress abandoned their families for the protection of his Soviet masters in 1950

Andrew Roth, Office of Naval Intelligence liaison officer with United States Department of State
Saville Sax college friend of Theodore Hall assisted with Hall's disclosure to the Soviets of Los Alamos research and development [5] [6]

The Cambridge Five was a ring of spies, recruited in part by Russian talent spotter Arnold Deutsch in the United Kingdom, who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and at least into the early 1950s. Four members of the ring have been identified: Kim Philby (cryptonym: Stanley), Donald Duart Maclean (cryptonym: Homer), Guy Burgess (cryptonym: Hicks) and Anthony Blunt (cryptonym: Johnson); jointly they are known as the Cambridge Four.

Several people have been suspected of being the "fifth man" of the group; John Cairncross (cryptonym: Liszt) was identified as such by Oleg Gordievsky, though many others have also been accused of membership in the Cambridge ring.
The term Cambridge Five refers to the conversion of Philby, Burgess, Blunt, and Maclean to communism during their education at Cambridge University in the 1930s. Debate surrounds the exact timing of their recruitment by Soviet intelligence; Anthony Blunt claimed that they were not recruited as agents until they had graduated. Blunt, a Fellow of Trinity College, was several years older than Burgess, Maclean, and Philby; he acted as a talent-spotter and recruiter.

Both Blunt and Burgess were members of the Apostles, an exclusive and prestigious society based at Trinity and King's Colleges. John Cairncross, long suspected of having been the 'Fifth Man', and formally identified as a Soviet agent in 1990, was also an Apostle.

Other Apostles accused of having spied for the Soviets include Michael Whitney Straight, Victor Rothschild, research fellow Lewis Daly and Guy Liddell.

In early summer 1951, Burgess and Maclean made international headlines by disappearing. Their whereabouts were unclear for some time. Strong suspicion that they had defected to the Soviet Union turned out to be correct, but was not made public until 1956, when the two appeared at a press conference in Moscow.
At the time of Golitsyn's defection, Philby had already been accused in the press and was living in a country with no extradition agreement with Britain. Select members of MI5 and MI6 already knew Philby to be a spy from VENONA decryptions. Golitsyn also provided other information that is widely regarded[by whom?] as highly improbable, such as the claim that Harold Wilson (then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) was a KGB agent.

Theodore Alvin Holtzberg was born in Far Rockaway, New York City, but his family soon moved to Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan.

While his father struggled to find work during the Great Depression, he changed both his and Theodore's last name to Hall in an effort to avoid anti-Semitic hiring practices.

Hall attended Public School 173 in Washington Heights during the Depression and then Harvard University, from which he graduated at the age of 18. [ i.e. a genius ]

At the age of 19, Hall was recruited to the Manhattan Project, where he was the youngest scientist at Los Alamos
It is not unlikely that he was supplying the Soviets with information provided to him by someone else, someone much more knowledgeable and much higher up in the Manhattan Project organization.

While on a vacation in his hometown, New York, he entered the Soviet consulate and volunteered to pass information on the Manhattan Project to the Soviet government. (After his death, Hall's wife Joan said that he had begun to adopt strong feelings, current at the time, against the possibility of a militarized United States having a nuclear monopoly very early in his time working at Los Alamos.)

Unbeknownst to Hall, Klaus Fuchs, a Los Alamos colleague, and others still unidentified were also spying for the USSR; none seem to have known of the others
FBI investigation
Until the release of the Venona decrypts in 1980, nearly all of the espionage regarding the Los Alamos nuclear weapons program was attributed to Klaus Fuchs. Hall was questioned by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in March 1951 but, mysteriously, wasn't charged. Alan H. Belmont, the number-three man in the FBI, decided that the Venona project would be inadmissible as hearsay evidence and not worth compromising the program
Hall left Los Alamos for the University of Chicago, where he switched to biology. There he pioneered important techniques in X-ray microanalysis. He went to work at Cambridge University in England in 1962. Hall later became active in obtaining signatures for the Stockholm Peace Pledge.
In a written statement published in 1997, Hall came close to admitting that the accusations against him were true, although obliquely, saying that in the immediate postwar years, he felt strongly that "an American monopoly" on nuclear weapons "was dangerous and should be avoided":

To help prevent that monopoly I contemplated a brief encounter with a Soviet agent, just to inform them of the existence of the A-bomb project. I anticipated a very limited contact. With any luck, it might easily have turned out that way, but it was not to be.
He repeated this near-confession in an interview for a Cold War documentary on the Cable News Network in 1998, saying,

I decided to give atomic secrets to the Russians because it seemed to me that it was important that there should be no monopoly, which could turn one nation into a menace and turn it loose on the world as ... as Nazi Germany developed. There seemed to be only one answer to what one should do. The right thing to do was to act to break the American monopoly.

On November 1, 1999, Theodore Hall died in Cambridge, England. He had suffered from Parkinson's disease, although he died of renal cancer at the age of 74
Theodore Hall - US scientist-spy who escaped prosecution and spent 30 years in biological research at Cambridge

Theodore Hall, who has died at the age of 74, was the American atomic scientist discovered by the United States authorities to have been a wartime Soviet spy - but who was never prosecuted.
The information he gave Moscow was at least as sensitive as that which sent Julius and Ethel Rosenberg to the electric chair. But the Americans decided not to charge Hall because of the security and legal difficulties of disclosing that they had penetrated some of the Soviet Union's most secure diplomatic codes. Subsequently, and with the tacit consent of the British security authorities, Hall spent more than 30 productive years as a respected researcher at Cambridge University until he retired in 1984 aged 59.

His espionage was uncovered through the highly-secret Venona project, Washington's long and painstaking effort to decrypt 35,000 pages of Soviet diplomatic traffic intercepted between 1942 and 1946. In the end only about 3,000 of the original texts were ever recovered, mostly long after their transmission.


The first clear reference to Hall had come in a message transmitted on November 12 1944 by the KGB station in New York but not eventually deciphered until April 1961. "BEK visited Teodor KhOLL, 19 years old, the son of a furrier. He is a graduate of Harvard university. As a talented physicist, he was taken on for government work... At the present time H is in charge of a group at CAMP-2. He handed over to Bek a report about the camp and named the key personnel employed on ENORMOUS."

"Bek" was Sergei Kurnakov, a Soviet journalist working in New York; "Camp-2" was the US scientific research centre at Los Alamos, and "Enormous" was Moscow's cryptonym for the Manhattan Project, America's top-secret programme to develop the atomic bomb.

This was the only message that ever mentioned Hall, and his fellow spy Saville Sax, by name. All other references used their code names - MLAD (Young) for Hall and STAR (Old) for Sax - which the Venona team had unravelled much earlier but could not identify. The message had been sent shortly after Hall had started work at Los Alamos.

From an early age he had displayed an astonishing talent for mathematics and physics. In 1940, aged 14, he had achieved some of the highest marks ever recorded in the entrance examination at Columbia University, but was then told he was too young to enrol. He went instead to Queen's College, New York, transferring two years later to Harvard, where he was allowed to skip the first year of his course.

There he immersed himself in relativity and quantum mechanics and was well-enough regarded to be awarded a special scholarship. As the Nazis went from one military success to another in Europe, he also became increasingly involved in leftwing politics, along with his room-mate Sax.

Hall had become a star pupil of Professor John Van Vleck, one of America's leading experts in quantum theory. The professor had been secretly recruited by the leading US scientist Robert Oppenheimer to help design the atomic bomb - and he, in turn, recommended Hall for work at Los Alamos.

Hall's government interviewer had said no more than that the proposed job was very secret and important to the war effort. The first idea of passing information to the Russians apparently emerged when Hall mentioned the project to Sax.

In June 1944, after Hall had been working at Los Alamos for some months, he was awarded a first-class degree in absentia by Harvard. This brought him promotion, at the age of 18, to head a team involved in designing the implosion trigger for one of the experimental bombs - the one which was eventually detonated successfully at the Trinity site in New Mexico on July 16 1945.

After preliminary tests of the mechanism's practicality, Hall took annual leave to celebrate his 19th birthday with his parents in New York. But - as he explained to two American journalists, Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel, 50 years later - he had by then decided to tell the Russians about his work.


The Boy Who Gave Away The Bomb
By Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel; Joseph Albright and Marcia

The New York Times Company The New York Times September 14, 1997, Sunday, Late Edition
Section 6; Page 70; Column 1; Magazine Desk HEADLINE:

The Secret Story Of America's Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy

By Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel,
Times Books, $25

Nov. 9 - For five decades it was Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and the physicist Klaus Fuchs. They were the villains, along with Ethel's brother David Greenglass and a few other dedicated socialists who gave away U.S. atomic secrets, who aided and abetted Joe Stalin, murderer of 25 million and enemy of humankind.
But there was at least one other spy within the Manhattan Project who aided the Soviets during World War II. He was a brilliant teenage scientist working on the A-bomb at Los Alamos. He gave the Soviets far more than the Rosenbergs, and did it earlier than Fuchs.

The FBI was handed his name by Army officials who had broken the code on Soviet diplomatic messages. But the FBI couldn't build a case and he went on to live a long and comfortable life. Now, he's in his 70s, resides in Britain, and remains steadfast in the certitude that he did the right thing.

His name is Theodore Hall. "Bombshell'' is his story, well told with insight and balance by former Cox Newspapers correspondents Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel. Albright and Kunstel spent three years sifting through declassified Russian and U.S. documents. They interviewed hundreds of people who might have had anything to do with Ted Hall from his birth to the present. They cross-checked sources. They compiled, verified and prioritized information. They tell a complex story with no hyperbole, make no normative assessment and give new meaning to the word balance.

Special Tasks [Paperback]
Anatoli Sudoplatov (Author), Pavel Sudoplatov  
Pavel Sudoplatov (Author)
Leona P. Schecter (Author), Jerrold L. Schecter (Author)

Sudoplatov, a former intelligence official during the Stalin era, presents an updated version of his controversial memoir.

Special Tasks : The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness -A Soviet Spymaster by Pavel Sudoplatov

The atomic bomb secrets were betrayed not by the Rosenbergs but by none other than Robert Oppenheimer and Enrico Fermi

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Jan 1998
"the Youngest Spy"
Sergey Nikolaevich Kurnakov or Sergei N. Kournakoff (Russian: Сергей Курнаков), is a former tsarist cavalry officer who had immigrated to the U.S. and later became an ardent ideological Communist.
Kurnakov served as a courier to various Soviet intelligence sources, and acted as both a talent-spotter and a vetter of potential recruits. Kurnakov was a highly active liaison agent. He was accused of Communism in Time in January 1944 after teaching at a Russian course at Cornell University in the summer of 1943. He was posthumously named as a communist agent in senate hearings in 1953.
His activities as an agent were revealed when the Venona decrypts were made public in 1995. He was the contact for Flora Wovschin's father, Enos Wicher. Kurnakov also took over Mary Jane Keeney who worked for the Board of Economic Warfare and later the United Nations from Soviet Military Intelligence (GRU). Her husband Philip Keeney, who worked for what became the OSS also was taken over by Kurnakov and the KGB.
Kurnakov was the contact between Saville Sax and Theodore Hall.[citation needed] Kurnakov reported Hall to have "an exceptionally keen mind and a broad outlook," and to be "politically developed." At their first meeting Hall gave Kurnakov a report he had prepared on the Los Alamos facility, the progress of the research, and the roles of the chief scientists working on the atomic bomb. Kurnakov immediately reported to KGB Officers Anatoly Yatskov and Stepan Apresyan on his meeting with Hall.
His son, Nick Kurnakov, served in Europe with the United States Army during World War II until he defected to the Red Army and was given an officer's rank. He joined Radio Moscow after the war.[1]

Saville Sax (July 26, 1924 – September 25, 1980) was the Harvard University roommate of Theodore Hall who recruited Hall for the Soviets and acted as a courier to move the atomic secrets from Los Alamos to the Soviets
Saville was introduced to Soviet agents by his mother, Bluma, who worked for a Communist front organization called Russian War Relief.[5] Sax went by the cover name "Oldster," and periodically traveled to New Mexico to collect information from Hall.


Just in case people say ther is no "World Zionist Organization" :

Mission Statement

The World Zionist Organization is committed to promoting the Zionist idea and the Zionist enterprise as vital and positive elements of contemporary Jewish life, in accordance with the principles articulated in the Jerusalem Program.

This manifesto is dedicated to instilling the centrality of Israel and Jerusalem its capital deep within Jewish consciousness, encouraging the return to Zion, fashioning an exemplary society in the Jewish state, expanding Zionist education including Hebrew language instruction, settling the land, and combating anti-Semitism.

The WZO strives to enhance the impact of Zionist ideology and activity in Jewish communities around the world, including Israel, both by working through the Zionist Federations and their constituent bodies, and by influencing the agenda of the organized Jewish community, particularly through its involvement with the Jewish Agency for Israel.

About the World Zionist Organization

The World Zionist Organization was founded at the initiative of Theodore Herzl at the First Zionist Congress which took place in august 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.

When it was founded, the goals of the Zionist movement were stated in a resolution that came of that Congress and came to be known as the “Basel Program.”

 Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a legally assured home in Eretz Yisrael. To achieve this purpose, the following means shall be employed:       

Promoting the settlement of Jewish farmers, artisans, and tradesmen in Palestine.

Organizing and uniting the whole of Jewry through effective local and international means in accordance with the laws of each country.

Strengthening of the Jewish national sentiment and national consciousness. 

Preparatory steps toward obtaining the consent of governments, where necessary, in order to achieve the goals of Zionism.

The WZO consists of the following bodies:  The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith, Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), delegation from the CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS), and more.

The first clear reference to Hall had come in a message transmitted on November 12 1944 by the KGB station in New York but not eventually deciphered until April 1961. "

Months after Israel was formed, Rothschild was involved with Chaim Weizmann in setting up a special nuclear physics department in a scientific institute in Rehovoth. The establishment was named after Weizmann, the nation's first president and himself a distinguished biochemist.

Weizmann Institute - Its aim even in those heady days of 1948 was to build nuclear weapons for Israel.
As head of the British Admiralty Laboratories from 1917 to 1919, Dr. Weizmann developed a process for the manufacture of synthetic acetone at a time when the British needed it desperately. He isolated certain organisms found in cereals and horse chestnuts and within a month had created synthetic acetone for British explosives.
He was also credited with having suggested to David Lloyd George the strategy of the campaign against Turkey which resulted ultimately in Allenby's victorious march on Jerusalem. For all these services the British Prime Minister asked him what he wanted in return.

Dr. Weizmann refused any monetary reward or a title, and said, "There is only one thing I want--a national home for my people."

The Balfour Declaration, issued in November, 1917, followed. It was Britain's promise to facilitate the Jews in making a homeland in Palestine and was hailed as the Magna Carta of the Zionist movement.

It was supported by a joint resolution of the Congress of the United States and led Jews everywhere to believe the redemption of Palestine was assured. The declaration was a central factor in Jewish aspirations even in the darkest days when war, then changes in British policy, including support of the Arab position, seemed to doom the whole idea of a Jewish homeland.
From 1920 to 1931, and in 1935, Dr. Weizmann, as president of the World Zionist Organization, found it necessary to compromise with the British and the Arabs and to appease his various Zionist opponents. Civil war in Palestine between the Jews and Arabs added to his difficulties. The Arabs insisted that Palestine had been exclusively theirs for thirteen centuries; the Jews maintained the right of prior occupation and historical connections related to their conquest of Palestine in 1200 B.C. Blood flowed freely in frequent clashes.

In the second World War, the British rejected his proposal to train a Jewish Army. They did train a Jewish battalion but that did not come into existence until 1944.

No Jewish mission was invited to the United Nations Conference in 1945 and it was not until 1946, when the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry on Palestine was created, that Dr. Weizmann again had an opportunity to make an official plea for a Jewish home and unrestricted immigration.

In October, 1947, he headed a delegation from the Jewish Agency which presented its case before the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. He accepted at that time the principle of partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states provided that the Jews were free to form a "free national unit." On Nov. 30, 1947, the U. N. General Assembly approved partition, and Jews danced in the streets of Tel Aviv.

Partition was threatened temporarily when the American delegation to the U. N. switched its position and pressed for a trusteeship. This proposal was turned down, and on May 14, 1948, simultaneously with the withdrawal of the British from Palestine, the Provisional Government of the new State of Israel was created.
It was also in 1949, in June, that Dr. Weizmann finally surrendered his British citizenship to become a citizen of Israel.

The Weizmann Institute. Construction of the institute started in 1944 and each year large sums of money were contributed here toward additional buildings.

Chaim Weizmann Visiting Tel Amal (Palestine/Israel) 1944
Stockade and Tower - Tel Amal

This is an exact replica of the first Stockade and Tower settlement, Tel Amal, which saw its beginnings on December 10, 1936. This first of its kind settlement (raised literally within a day) subsequently became the model for 57 settlements established between 1936-1939.

Located in the Beit Shean Valley (the natural continuation of the eastern part of the Jezreel Valley), it was established by pioneers who had lived in nearby Kibbutz Beit Alpha.
The American Committee for the Weizmann Institute of Science (ACWIS), founded in 1944, develops philanthropic support for the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, one of the world's premier scientific research institutions
Our History
Since 1944, ACWIS has enabled Americans to play a dramatic partnership role in keeping the Weizmann Institute at the forefront of modern science. Research funds, major buildings, professorial chairs, laboratories, endowed scholarships, and many other gifts testify to vigorous American commitment to the Institute and its graduate school.

ACWIS was founded by a group of visionaries inspired by the dreams of Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the eminent chemist and Zionist leader who later became the first President of the State of Israel and of the Institute that bears his name. Outstanding business, intellectual, and opinion leaders soon joined the Committee to participate in exciting projects of support.

From modest beginnings in Boston and New York, ACWIS has grown into a prominent national organization with offices coast to coast.

Another dead scientist :
(Microsoft Research) Theory Group
We work on fundamental problems in mathematics and theoretical computer science, interact extensively with the academic community and collaborate with other researchers at MSR on challenging applied problems. Among our areas of expertise are probability theory, combinatorics, statistical physics, metric geometry, fractals, algorithms and optimization.
Oded Schramm
Born: 10 Dec 1961 in Jerusalem, Israel
Died: 1 Sept 2008 in Guye Peak, Washington State, USA

Following the award of his doctorate, Schramm worked for two years as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Diego.

In 1992 he returned to Israel when appointed to the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel.

This Institute was founded by Chaim Weizmann, first president of Israel, in 1934. It was renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1944.

Schramm worked at the Institute for seven years until,
in 1999, he returned to the United States to take up a position in the Theory Group at Microsoft Research in Redmond, Washington

The list of awards and prizes he received shows the remarkable quality of his work. Among the first prizes he received were the Anna and Lajos Erdős Prize in Mathematics in 1996, and the Salem Prize in 2001 (jointly with Stanislav Smirnov):-
he received the 2002 Clay Research Award
He then received the Loève Prize in 2003
Next he received the Henri Poincaré Prize in 2003
He was awarded the SIAM George Pólya Prize in 2006
he received next the Ostrowski Prize in 2007.
In 2008 he was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Schramm, who was an avid climber, died in a mountaineering accident at Guye Peak, near Snoqualmie Pass, in Washington State. He had gone climbing on his own and when he failed to return as planned on 1 September 2008, his wife reported him missing. His body was discovered the next morning.
Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)
After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement,
he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

ca. 1920s, New York, New York, USA --- Photo shows Chaim Weizmann, Mayor John F. Hyland and Albert Einstein, apparently standing on steps during a parade in New York

Edward Teller in 1958 as Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Born January 15, 1908(1908-01-15)
Budapest, Hungary (Austria-Hungary)
Died September 9, 2003(2003-09-09) (aged 95) Stanford, California, United States

Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s, and was an early member of the Manhattan Project charged with developing the first atomic bombs. During this time he made a serious push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well, but these were deferred until after World War II. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos colleague J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community. He continued to find support from the U.S. government and military research establishment, particularly for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, and a vigorous nuclear testing program. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and was both its director and associate director for many years.

In his later years he became especially known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosives. He was a vigorous advocate of Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Throughout his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality, and is considered one of the inspirations for the character Dr. Strangelove in the 1964 movie of the same name.
 The political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller

Nuclear technology and Israel

For some twenty years, Teller advised Israel on nuclear matters in general, and on the building of a hydrogen bomb in particular.[45]

In 1952, Teller and Oppenheimer had a long meeting with David Ben-Gurion in Tel Aviv, telling him that the best way to accumulate plutonium was to burn natural uranium in a nuclear reactor.

Starting in 1964, a connection between Teller and Israel was made by the physicist Yuval Neeman, who had similar political views.

Between 1964 and 1967, Teller visited Israel six times, lecturing at Tel Aviv University, and advising the chiefs of Israel's scientific-security circle as well as prime ministers and cabinet members.

At each of his talks with members of the Israeli security establishment's highest levels he would make them swear that they would never be tempted into signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

In 1967 when the Israeli program was nearing completion, Teller informed Neeman that he was going to tell the CIA that Israel had built nuclear weapons and explain that it was justified by the background of the Six-Day War.

After Neeman cleared it with Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, Teller briefed the head of the CIA's Office of Science and Technology, Carl Duckett. It took a year for Teller to convince the CIA that Israel had obtained nuclear capability; the information then went through CIA Director Richard Helms and then to the US president.

Teller also persuaded them to end the American attempts to inspect the Negev Nuclear Research Center in Dimona.

Israel and the Bomb [Paperback]   Avner Cohen (Author)
 But with Israel and the Bomb (Columbia University Press; release date October 21; $27.50) Avner Cohen has forged an interpretive political history that draws on thousands of American and Israeli government documents-most of them recently declassified and never before cited-and more than one hundred interviews with key individuals who played important roles in this story.

Cohen reveals that Israel crossed the nuclear weapons threshold on the eve of the 1967 Six Day War, yet it continues to maintain an ambiguous posture with regard to its nuclear capability to this day.

The book focuses on a two-decade period from about 1950 until 1970, during which David Ben-Gurion's vision of making Israel a nuclear-weapon state was realized [ if you're read this thread you know this is not completely correct !] .

Cohen weaves together the story of the formative years of Israel's nuclear program, from the founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission in 1952, to the alliance with France that gave Israel the nuclear technology it needed, to the failure of American intelligence to identify the Dimona Project for what it was in the late 1950s, to the negotiations between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir that led to the current policy of nuclear opacity.

Cohen also analyzes the complex forces that led Israel to conceal its nuclear program-from concerns over Arab reaction and the negative effect of the debate at home to consideration of America's commitment to nonproliferation.
Israel and the Bomb : Principal Players
Angleton, James Jesus (1917-87). Long-time CIA operative; director of CIA counterespionage (1954-74); handled the CIA Israel account; was forced to resign from the CIA after questions were raised concerning his search for a Soviet "mole" inside the agency.
Barbour, Walworth (1908-82). U.S. ambassador to Israel (1961-73).
Bergmann, Ernst David (1903-75). German born; organic chemist; Chaim Weizmann protege and scientific director of the Sieff Institute and subsequently the Weizmann Institute of Science(1934-51); member and head of the scientific department of the Haganah and IDF, first chair of the IAEC (1952-66); head of research in the Ministry of Defense (1950-66); recognized as the scientific inspiration for Israel's nuclear program
De Shalit, Amos (1926-69). Prominent Israeli scientist (nuclear physicist); among the HEMED physicists who were sent in 1949 to study nuclear physics overseas; created (1954) and headed (1954-64) the Department of Nuclear Physics at the Weizmann Institute; scientific director of the Weizmann Institute; served as the official escort to most of the American AEC teams to Dimona.
Dostrovsky, Israel (1918- ). Prominent Israeli scientist (nuclear chemist); joined the Weizmann Institute in 1948 and founded the Department of Isotope Research; commander of HEMED Gimmel (1948-51); director of research at the LAEC (1953-57); director-general of the IAEC under Prime Ministers Levi Eshkol and Golda Meir (1965-71); vice president and later president of the Weizmann Institute (1971-75).
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1890-1969). Supreme Allied commander during the Second World War; thirty-fourth president of the United States (1953-61).
Goldschmidt, Bertrand Leopold (1912- ). French physical chemist; participated in the French contingent to the Manhattan Project; among the major contributors to the French CEA as head of the Chemistry Division (1946-59) and head of External Relations and Planning.
Harriman, Averell W. (1891-1986). U.S. ambassador to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union; governor of New York (1955-59); undersecretary of state in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.

| - - - -
Goldschmidt, Bertrand Leopold (1912- ). French physical chemist; participated in the French contingent to the Manhattan Project; among the major contributors to the French CEA as head of the Chemistry Division (1946-59) and head of External Relations and Planning

Goldschmidt, Bertrand Leopold  was married to ... wait for it.... Naomi Louisa Nina Goldschmidt (de Rothschild) (1920 - 2007

Lionel Nathan de Rothschild father
Edmund Leopold de Rothschild brother
Bertrand Léopold Goldschmidt is the son of Paul Goldschmidt.1 He married Naomi Louisa Nina de Rothschild, daughter of Lionel Nathan de Rothschild and Marie Louise Eugénie Beer, on 26 February 1947.
Bertrand Goldschmidt  1912 - 2002

Bertrand Goldschmidt, the last surviving French participant in the wartime development of nuclear energy, died in Paris June 11 2002 at age 89.   Goldschmidt directed his country's uranium and plutonium chemistry programs after the war, and at the end of a career spent at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), culminating as director of international relations, was chairman of the IAEA board of governors in 1980.

A chemist by education, the young Goldschmidt was engaged before the last war by Marie Curie at her Radium Institute as a preparer.   He rose to become professor, but lost his position in 1940 under the collaborationist Vichy government which forbade Jews in teaching professions.

Goldschmidt enrolled in the Free French Forces in New York and became the only Frenchman to work on the Manhattan Project.   He worked with Glenn Seaborg on plutonium separation before being assigned, along with two other prominent French scientists, Hans Halban and Lew Kowarski, to the Anglo-Canadian nuclear development effort in Montreal.   There, Goldschmidt developed the basic solvent extraction process that is still the most widely used to reprocess spent nuclear fuel.   He also worked at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, "a fascinating undertaking, the creation in pine and birch forests of a new town" ("The Atomic Adventure", B. Goldschmidt, 1964).

After the war, Goldschmidt became part of the small team that led the CEA's development of a nuclear energy and weapons capability, as director of chemistry.   In late 1949, his unit separated the first micrograms of French plutonium.

His wartime and post-war experiences-including the abrupt dismissal of the "Canadians" from the Anglo-American nuclear development work and the blackout of further information by a U.S. government that regarded French scientists as dangerously pro-Soviet-made Goldschmidt wary of what he liked to call "Anglo-Saxon" dictates in the world of nuclear diplomacy.   He wrote several books, including "Pioneers of the Atom" which told the story of the wartime effort, while "The Atomic Complex" recounted nuclear diplomatic relations to the early 1980s.   "The Atomic Adventure" told the international history of nuclear science and technology to 1964.

This 1947 photo is from the book "The Nuclear Age" (Jacques Leclercq, 1986), and shows Bertrand Goldschmidt on the right, with (l to r) Jules Guéron, Francis Perrin, Jean Stohr, Raoul Dautry, Irène Curie, Frédéric Joliot and Lew Kowarski - "The Zoé team".  

Zoé was France's first nuclear reactor, a copy of the ZEEP reactor (i.e. natural uranium and heavy water pool-type) built in Chalk River under the direction of Kowarski.

No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist who had served during World War II with the handful of French scientists who were permitted-despite being foreigners-to work directly with the Americans doing nuclear research. He had become an expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction. He also had helped build an experimental reactor fueled with natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. As a first-rate chemist, he had been offered a chance to stay in the American bomb program after the war, but instead chose to return to France and join its Atomic Energy Commission
Goldschmidt was a Jew whose family had suffered, as had most Jewish families in Europe, during the war.

His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family, whose contributions to Israel and Jewish causes were measured in the tens of millions of dollars. Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Ernst Bergmann for a memorable meeting with Ben- Gurion at his frame home in the Negev. [5]

By then, Goldschmidt was serving as director of chemistry for France's Atomic Energy Commission; in the 1970's he would become a widely respected French spokesman on nonproliferation and other international atomic energy issues. He also was among the few outsiders permitted to visit the completed reactor at Dimona in the 1960s-then a classic example of illicit proliferation.

All in the family:

SALZBURG, GERMANY - JANUARY 01 1932: Baron Erich Von Goldschmidt Rothschild taking his wife and a friend for a drive.  - Photo: Alfred Eisenstaedt/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images Jan 01, 1932

Looking for a bio on the Baron who had a great pre-war art collection>
Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1899-1987), of the famous Rothschild lineage. Goldschmidt-Rothschild was also well-known for his extensive, rare book collection.
Die Sammlung Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild Tafelband - 1931 - Berlin - Hermann Ball, Paul Graupe

DETAILS - Two beautifully illustrated German auction catalogues - In German. Bound in blue paper covered boards. Die Sammlung Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild Tafelband is a volume of plates only.

These auction catalogues describe and picture a vast number of collectibles, from furniture to vases and artwork. The auctioneer for the lots which took place between 1930-1 was the well known Paul Graupe of Berlin.

The two volumes detail the collection of Erich von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1899-1987), of the famous Rothschild lineage.
Mordechai Vanunu provided the best look at the Israeli nuclear arsenal in 1985 complete with photographs.93  A technician from Dimona who lost his job, Vanunu secretly took photographs, immigrated to Australia and published some of his material in the London Sunday Times.  

He was subsequently kidnapped by Israeli agents, tried and imprisoned.  

His data shows a sophisticated nuclear program, over 200 bombs, with boosted devices, neutron bombs, F-16 deliverable warheads, and Jericho warheads.94   The boosted weapons shown in the Vanunu photographs show a sophistication that inferred the requirement for testing.95  He revealed for the first time the underground plutonium separation facility where Israel was producing 40 kilograms annually, several times more than previous estimates.  

Photographs showed sophisticated designs which scientific experts say enabled the Israelis to build bombs with as little as 4 kilograms of plutonium.  These facts have increased the estimates of total Israeli nuclear stockpiles (see Appendix A).96  

In the words of one American, “[the Israelis] can do anything we or the Soviets can do.”97  

Vanunu not only made the technical details of the Israeli program and stockpile public but in his wake, Israeli began veiled official acknowledgement of the potent Israeli nuclear deterrent.  They began bringing the bomb up the basement stairs if not out of the basement.
The Infamous [famous] Mordechai Vanunu

VANUNU: Well, the most important point is that it was the same situation that we have right now, namely that these people continue to lie and to cheat the world as well as their own citizens by denying the truth, by declaring that they do not have atomic weapons while at the same time I was working there helping to produce them.

At that time there were more than 200 atomic weapons, in 1986, and it was at that time that they started to produce the most horrible of all weapons, the hydrogen bomb…all of this in secret, in lying and in cheating the world and all of its citizens. So I said to myself `It is impossible to keep these secrets. I must report about them and to try and stop it.’
Mordechai Vanunu (Israel)

Mordechai Vanunu was born in Morocco and moved with his family to Israel in 1963. He did three years' military service from 1971 to '74, when he was given an 'honourable discharge' having served as a First Sergeant in a unit of sappers. He became a technician at the Dimona nuclear plant in 1976 and underwent special training. In October 1979 he began studies at Ben Gurion University, Be'er-Sheva, in philosophy and geography, graduating in 1984/5.

At university Vanunu became increasingly politically active, calling for equal rights for Palestinians in Israel and for the inclusion of Palestinians in negotiations for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. Becoming more and more disillusioned with Israel's military posture, he opposed the country's 1982 invasion of Lebanon.

In November 1985 he was made redundant in a mass lay-off of workers at Dimona.
Ten months later he talked to a London newspaper, the Sunday Times, about the Dimona plant,
revealing that Israel's nuclear capability was far greater than suspected.
He told the newspaper that Israel probably had a stockpile of 100-200 nuclear weapons,
was able to make thermonuclear devices more powerful than atomic bombs and had collaborated routinely with South Africa on nuclear matters.

Soon after the resulting article appeared, Vanunu went missing.  
Vanunu's revelations were exhaustively checked by the Sunday Times before publication and they have not been seriously challenged.
Mordechai Vanunu: “Having the atomic bomb is what has allowed Israel to fearlessly carry out its apartheid policy”
[Voltaire Network]

Mordechai Vanunu (Hebrew: מרדכי ואנונו‎); (born 14 October 1954) is a former Israeli nuclear technician who, citing his opposition to weapons of mass destruction, revealed details of Israel's nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986.[2][3]

He was subsequently lured to Italy by a female Mossad agent, where he was drugged and kidnapped by Israeli intelligence agents.[2] He was transported to Israel and ultimately convicted in a trial that was held behind closed doors.[2]

Vanunu spent 18 years in prison, including more than 11 in solitary confinement. Released from prison in 2004, he became subject to a broad array of restrictions on his speech and movement.

Since then he has been arrested several times for violations of those restrictions, including giving various interviews to foreign journalists and attempting to leave Israel.

He says he suffered "cruel and barbaric treatment" at the hands of Israeli authorities while imprisoned, and suggests that his treatment would have been different if he were Jewish (Vanunu is a Christian convert from Judaism).[4]

In 2007, Vanunu was sentenced to six months in prison for violating terms of his parole.

The sentence was considered unusual even by the prosecution who expected a suspended sentence. In response, Amnesty International issued a press release on 2 July 2007, stating that "The organisation considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release."[5] In May 2010, Vanunu was arrested and sentenced to three months in jail on suspicion that he met foreigners in violation of conditions of his 2004 release from jail.

Vanunu has been characterized internationally as a whistleblower[6][7] and by Israel as a traitor.[8][9][10][11]

Daniel Ellsberg has referred to him as "the preeminent hero of the nuclear era".[ 12]

In 2010, the British artist Richard Hamilton completed a painting based on the famous press photograph of Vanunu in transit after his kidnapping, with the information concerning his capture in Rome scrawled on his hand for the press outside.
Israeli nuclear whistle-blower Mordechai Vanunu back in prison
Israeli nuclear whistle-blower Mordechai Vanunu has started a three-month jail sentence for breaking the terms of his release and meeting a foreigner.
7:00AM BST 24 May 2010

"Shame on you, Israel, and the stupid Shin Bet and Mossad spies who are returning me to jail after 24 years in which I have spoken only the truth," Vanunu shouted in court before being led away, referring to Israel's internal security arm and its international spy service.

"Freedom is a basic part of human rights. I am not an animal. You punished me in the past, but I cannot accept a violation of my freedom of expression."

The 55-year-old was arrested in December at a Jerusalem hotel while talking to a Norwegian woman
Since his release in 2004, he has been detained several times for violating the terms of his release that ban him from travel or contact with foreigners.

The Jewish state has refused to sign the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty or to allow international surveillance of Dimona in the southern Negev desert.  Vanunu became an international cause celebre during his time in prison. At home, he is still widely reviled for converting to Christianity shortly before he was kidnapped in Italy. He was jailed after being covertly shipped back to Israel.

Israel began actively investigating the nuclear option from its earliest days. In 1949, HEMED GIMMEL a special unit of the IDF's Science Corps, began a two-year geological survey of the Negev desert with an eye toward the discovery of uranium reserves.

Although no significant sources of uranium were found, recoverable amounts were located in phosphate deposits.

The program took another step forward with the creation of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) in 1952.

Its chairman, Ernst David Bergmann, had long advocated an Israeli bomb as the best way to ensure "that we shall never again be led as lambs to the slaughter."

Bergmann was also head of the Ministry of Defense's Research and Infrastructure Division (known by its Hebrew acronym, EMET), which had taken over the HEMED research centers (HEMED GIMMEL among them, now renamed Machon 4) as part of a reorganization. Under Bergmann, the line between the IAEC and EMET blurred to the point that Machon 4 functioned essentially as the chief laboratory for the IAEC.

By 1953, Machon 4 had not only perfected a process for extracting the uranium found in the Negev, but had also developed a new method of producing heavy water, providing Israel with an indigenous capability to produce some of the most important nuclear materials.

For reactor design and construction, Israel sought the assistance of France. Nuclear cooperation between the two nations dates back as far as early 1950's, when construction began on France's 40MWt heavy water reactor and a chemical reprocessing plant at Marcoule. France was a natural partner for Israel and both governments saw an independent nuclear option as a means by which they could maintain a degree of autonomy in the bipolar environment of the cold war.

In the fall of 1956, France agreed to provide Israel with an 18 MWt research reactor. However, the onset of the Suez Crisis a few weeks later changed the situation dramatically. Following Egypt's closure of the Suez Canal in July, France and Britain had agreed with Israel that the latter should provoke a war with Egypt to provide the European nations with the pretext to send in their troops as peacekeepers to occupy and reopen the canal zone. In the wake of the Suez Crisis, the Soviet Union made a thinly veiled threat against the three nations. T

his episode not only enhanced the Israeli view that an independent nuclear capability was needed to prevent reliance on potentially unreliable allies, but also led to a sense of debt among French leaders that they had failed to fulfill commitments made to a partner.

French premier Guy Mollet is even quoted as saying privately that France "owed" the bomb to Israel.

On 3 October 1957, France and Israel signed a revised agreement calling for France to build a 24 MWt reactor (although the cooling systems and waste facilities were designed to handle three times that power) and, in protocols that were not committed to paper, a chemical reprocessing plant. This complex was constructed in secret, and outside the IAEA inspection regime, by French and Israeli technicians at Dimona, in the Negev desert under the leadership of Col. Manes Pratt of the IDF Ordinance Corps.

Both the scale of the project and the secrecy involved made the construction of Dimona a massive undertaking. A new intelligence agency, the Office of Science Liasons,(LEKEM) was created to provide security and intelligence for the project. At the height construction, some 1,500 Israelis some French workers were employed building Dimona. To maintain secrecy, French customs officials were told that the largest of the reactor components, such as the reactor tank, were part of a desalinization plant bound for Latin America. In addition, after buying heavy water from Norway on the condition that it not be transferred to a third country, the French Air Force secretly flew as much as four tons of the substance to Israel.

Trouble arose in May 1960, when France began to pressure Israel to make the project public and to submit to international inspections of the site, threatening to withhold the reactor fuel unless they did. President de Gaulle was concerned that the inevitable scandal following any revelations about French assistance with the project, especially the chemical reprocessing plant, would have negative repercussions for France's international position, already on shaky ground because of its war in Algeria.

At a subsequent meeting with Ben-Gurion, de Gaulle offered to sell Israel fighter aircraft in exchange for stopping work on the reprocessing plant, and came away from the meeting convinced that the matter was closed. It was not. Over the next few months, Israel worked out a compromise. France would supply the uranium and components already placed on order and would not insist on international inspections. In return, Israel would assure France that they had no intention of making atomic weapons, would not reprocess any plutonium, and would reveal the existence of the reactor, which would be completed without French assistance. In reality, not much changed - French contractors finished work on the reactor and reprocessing plant, uranium fuel was delivered and the reactor went critical in 1964.

The United States first became aware of Dimona's existence after U-2 overflights in 1958 captured the facility's construction, but it was not identified as a nuclear site until two years later. The complex was variously explained as a textile plant, an agricultural station, and a metallurgical research facility, until David Ben-Gurion stated in December 1960 that Dimona complex was a nuclear research center built for "peaceful purposes."

There followed two decades in which the United States, through a combination of benign neglect, erroneous analysis, and successful Israeli deception, failed to discern first the details of Israel's nuclear program. As early as 8 December 1960, the CIA issued a report outlining Dimona's implications for nuclear proliferation, and the CIA station in Tel Aviv had determined by the mid-1960s that the Israeli nuclear weapons program was an established and irreversible fact.

United States inspectors visited Dimona seven times during the 1960s, but they were unable to obtain an accurate picture of the activities carried out there, largely due to tight Israeli control over the timing and agenda of the visits. The Israelis went so far as to install false control room panels and to brick over elevators and hallways that accessed certain areas of the facility. The inspectors were able to report that there was no clear scientific research or civilian nuclear power program justifying such a large reactor - circumstantial evidence of the Israeli bomb program - but found no evidence of "weapons related activities" such as the existence of a plutonium reprocessing plant.

Although the United States government did not encourage or approve of the Israeli nuclear program, it also did nothing to stop it. Walworth Barbour, US ambassador to Israel from 1961-73, the bomb program's crucial years, primarily saw his job as being to insulate the President from facts which might compel him to act on the nuclear issue, alledgedly saying at one point that "The President did not send me there to give him problems. He does not want to be told any bad news." After the 1967 war, Barbour even put a stop to military attach鳧 intelligence collection efforts around Dimona. Even when Barbour did authorize forwarding information, as he did in 1966 when embassy staff learned that Israel was beginning to put nuclear warheads in missiles, the message seemed to disappear into the bureaucracy and was never acted upon.


Just to backup a bit - The history of Zionism and it's links to Rothschild....

It is estimated that Edmond de Rothschild spent over $50 million dollars in supporting the settlements, and backed research in electricity by engineers and financed development of an electric generating station

Now that would be like $500 Billion today... He was probably hoping for some return on his investment... hmmm

Baron Edmond James de Rothschild

A really good link:
Palestine and Zionism 1700-1950 by Sanderson Beck
Zionism and Herzl 1839-1904

Czar Alexander II of Russia had tolerated Jews more than before, but he was assassinated on March 13, 1881. Alexander III believed that policy had failed. Pogroms against Jews in southern Russia and the Ukraine began, and on May 3, 1882 Alexander III issued a new series of anti-Jewish decrees.

The May Laws closed further rural areas to Jewish settlement. Moshe Lilienblum hid in a basement from Russian mobs for two days, and he began writing articles urging Jews to move to the land of their fathers.

Leo Pinsker published his essay Auto-emancipation (Selbstemanzipation) in September 1882, arguing that Jews needed their own nation.

Groups called the Lovers of Zion (Chovevei Zion) adopted the credo that they had to establish a government in their own land of Israel to attain salvation. Pinsker emerged as the leader, and he summoned a national conference for Chovevei Zion societies in 1884. A central office was established in Odessa with Pinsker as president. By 1890 Chovevei Zion was registered as an association by the Russian government, and the Society for the Support of Jewish Agriculturists and Artisans in Palestine and Syria was being tolerated by the government in St. Petersburg.

Lovers of an Ancient Tongue formed branches of their society and were led by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda who went to Palestine in 1882. He began using the Hebrew-in-Hebrew method of teaching at the first Hebrew school in 1903, the year the Association of Hebrew Teachers was formed to promote Hebrew education in Palestine.

In the fall of 1882 Baron Edmund de Rothschild met with Joseph Feinberg, a co-founder of Rishon Le Zion, and offered 30,000 francs to drill a well there. Rothschild insisted on keeping his contributions secret, and by 1890 he had contributed $6 million to purchase land, training, machinery, livestock, waterworks, dispensaries, synagogues, and homes for the elderly.

Rothschild also sent overseers to control how the money was spent. Residents complained that crops changed from grapes to almonds and from olives to wheat. Rothschild visited Palestine in December 1898 and was impressed by progress he saw, and he decided not to phase out his subsidies. He expected the farmers to meet their responsibilities, but he would continue to provide schools and communal buildings. He turned the management over to the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA).

Rishon LeZion (Hebrew: רִאשׁוֹן ), lit. First to Zion), is the fourth-largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain 12 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. It is part of the Gush Dan metropolitan area.  

Founded in 1882 by European Jewish immigrants, it was the second Jewish farm colony established in Land of Israel in the 19th century, after Petah Tikva.
The name Rishon LeZion is derived from a biblical verse: "First to Zion are they, and I shall give herald to Jerusalem"
Rishon LeZion was founded on July 31, 1882 by ten Hovevei Zion pioneers from Kharkov, Ukraine (then the Russian Empire) headed by Zalman David Levontin. Reuven Yudalevich was also a member of the group. The pioneers purchased 835 acres (337.91 ha) of land southeast of present-day Tel Aviv, part of the townland of the Arab village of Ayun Kara

The founders faced numerous difficulties. The soil was sandy, water was scarce and the settlers had no agricultural experience. After a well was dug and more pioneers arrived - the Biluim - the colony slowly took shape. Notable members of this group include Fani Belkind, Israel Belkind, Shimshon Belkind, Yoel Drubin, Dr. Haim Hissin, and David Yudilovich.

When Baron Edmond James de Rothschild took over, sending in his administrators, major progress was made in the spheres of agriculture, citrus and viticulture. Under Rothschild's patronage, the Carmel-Mizrahi Winery was established in 1886.
Development was hindered by the lack of a water source. Baron Rothschild brought in experts who located water at 42 meters below ground. The groundwater table in the area was found to be uneven and wells were mostly constructed at between 20 and 25 meters in depth. Orchards were then developed around the settlement, and by the late 1920s the city developed a burgeoning citrus industry

Petah Tikva was founded in 1878 by religious pioneers from Europe, who were led by Yehoshua Stampfer, Moshe Shmuel Raab, Yoel Moshe Salomon, Zerach Barnett, and David Gutmann, as well as Lithuanian Rabbi Aryeh Leib Frumkin.[2] It was the first modern Jewish agricultural settlement in Ottoman Palestine and has since grown to become one of Israel's most populous urban centres.
Originally intending to establish a new settlement in the Achor Valley, near Jericho, the pioneers purchased land in that area. However, Abdülhamid II cancelled the purchase and forbade them from settling there, but they retained the name Petah Tikva as a symbol of their aspirations.

Undaunted, the settlers purchased a modest area (3.40 square kilometers) from the village of Mulabbis (variants: Mlabbes, Um-Labbes), near the source of the Yarkon River. The Sultan allowed the enterprise to proceed, but because their purchase was located in what was a malarial swamp, they had to evacuate when the malaria spread, founding the town of Yehud near the Arabic village Yehudiyya about 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the south.[citation needed]

With the financial help of Baron Edmond de Rothschild they were able to drain the swamps sufficiently to be able to move back in 1883, joined by immigrants of the First Aliyah, and later the Second Aliyah.

Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild (August 19, 1845 – November 2, 1934) was a French member of the Rothschild banking family. A strong supporter of Zionism, his generous donations lent significant support to the movement during its early years, which helped lead to the establishment of the State of Israel.
However, in 1882 Edmond cut back on his purchases of art and began to buy land in Palestine. He became a leading proponent of the Zionist movement, financing the first site at Rishon LeZion. In his goal for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, he promoted industrialization and economic development. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (22,36 km²) of land and set up business ventures.

Edmond de Rothschild also played a pivotal role in Israel's wine industry. Under the supervision of his administrators in Palestine, farm colonies and vineyards were established, and two major wineries were opened in Rishon LeZion and Zichron Yaakov.[1]

It is estimated that Edmond de Rothschild spent over $50 million dollars in supporting the settlements, and backed research in electricity by engineers and financed development of an electric generating station. In a 1934 letter to the League of Nations, Edmond de Rothschild stated that "the struggle to put an end to the Wandering Jew, could not have as its result, the creation of the Wandering Arab."

\ - Connect this with the Weizmann Institute : Rehovot is very close to Rishon LeZion

Rehovot, one of the earlier communities founded in the modern State of Israel, is located in the center of the country, conveniently located about 20 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. The city has a population of 114,000 people and is known as the City of Science and Culture. It is also known as Israel's citrus capital and the city emblem displays a microscope, book and orange.

Rehovot was founded in 1890 by a group of immigrants from Poland, looking for land in Palestine without being under the control of Baron Rothschild. Sixteen years later, they were joined by immigrants from Yemen. Together, they built the city that is known for its agriculture and high-tech.
In 1934 Chaim Weizmann built the Sieff Institute in Rehovot, which later became the Weizmann Institute of Science. He and his wife are buried on the Institute's manicured grounds.
The home of three world renowned institutes, Rehovot is visited by students and professors from around the world. Best known and largest is the Weizmann Institute of Science, which was founded in 1934. Chaim Weizmann, the distinguished scientist and statesmen, became the president of the Institute as well as the first President of Israel.

The Institute is devoted to research and teaching in the natural sciences. Jerusalem's Hebrew University uses Rehovot as the site for its new School of Humanities and School of Agriculture. The Development Study Center for intensive study of rural development is utilized by many third world countries as well as advanced nations for graduate studies and planning for socio-economic growth.
Scientists from the "Sieff Institute" contributed towards the security effort in various areas, and at "Giv`at Hakibbutzim" there was an underground factory for the manufacture of bullets for Sten guns. [Gershom: this site, Makhon Ayalon or the Ayalon Institute, is presently a museum to the underground movements.]

Haganah officer demonstrates use of Sten gun, secretly manufactured in Haganah workshops before the war.,_Baron_Sieff
Israel Moses Sieff, Baron Sieff (4 May 1889 – 14 February 1972) was a British businessman.

He was educated at Manchester Grammar School and Manchester University. One of the theatres at the Manchester Grammar School is named in his honour. Sieff was chairman of the British retailer, Marks & Spencer from 1964 to 1967.
In 1966 he had been created a life peer as Baron Sieff, of Brimpton in the Royal County of Berkshire.

He was president of the Political and Economic Planning think-tank from its foundation in 1931, and chairman until 1939.

Upon the death of his son Daniel Sieff --- and with the financial support of his business partners and relatives by marriage, the Marks and Sacher families --- Israel Sieff endowed the 1934 creation, by Chaim Weizmann, of the Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot, present-day Israel.

Renamed the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1949 with the Sieff family's consent, it is presently Israel's premier research university in the natural sciences.
Weizmann turned again to science, founding the Daniel Sieff Research Institute at Rehovot, Palestine (1934), with the help of friends in England.

Earlier, he had toured South Africa (1931) and played a leading part in public efforts to save German Jewry and its property after the advent of the Nazis (1933).
When the Institute was conceived in 1933, the embattled Jewish population of Palestine numbered 400,000 and Rehovot was a tiny agricultural community surrounded by orange groves. In this milieu, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, who would later become the first President of the State of Israel, envisioned the establishment of a world-class scientific research center. Though resources were extremely scarce, Dr. Weizmann, a successful chemist and tireless statesman for the Zionist cause, believed such an institute was crucial to securing the future of a Jewish state, both economically and politically.

Fortunately, there were others who shared his dream. In 1934, his friends Israel and Rebecca Sieff established the Daniel Sieff Research Institute in memory of their son. Dr. Weizmann had his lab in the Daniel Sieff Institute, alongside those of 10 other full-time researchers in organic chemistry and biochemistry.

Throughout WWII and Israel's War of Independence, Institute scientists were deeply involved in the war efforts, yet under Dr. Weizmann's direction, the Institute continued to grow. The end of WWII and the founding of the new Jewish state brought an influx of new scientific talent, and with it a new determination to make Israel a center of scientific excellence. By the time it was formally dedicated in 1949, shortly after Israel's declaration of independence, the Weizmann Institute housed 60 labs in nine fields of research, including organic, inorganic and bio- chemistry, optics and electronics, bacteriology and biophysics, polymer and isotope research, and applied mathematics. The Wolfson Institute of Experimental Biology was under construction and the first residential quarters were nearing completion.
The Weizmann Institute was also a key player in the establishment of the Kiryat Weizmann Industrial Park, a 40 acre site housing over 60 hi-tech companies, many based on Institute discoveries, ranging from aircraft instruments to bioengineered drugs.

More than 70 years since the first labs were erected in the midst of bucolic orange groves, and over 60 since its official dedication, the Weizmann Institute, today more than ever, is at the forefront of global science.
Marks & Spencer: A Brief Chronology of the Marks & Spencer - Israel Relationship
Research conducted by IHRC :


Marks & Spencer (M&S) was founded in 1884 by a Russian Jewish refugee Michael Marks. Since then, the UK-based firm has been linked inextricably to Zionism.

When he became chairman in 1916, Simon Marks made a number of commercial changes. But his greatest brain wave was to take on his boyhood friend Israel Sieff as company director.

The Marks-Sieff partnership went beyond business, into Zionist activity.

Sieff had supported Zionism since meeting Chaim Weizmann in 1913.

Together with Weizmann, Marks and Sieff helped set in motion the train of events that culminated in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The following year Israel Sieff headed a Zionist commission, and then served as Weizmann's secretary at the Versailles Conference.

Sieff's wife (and Simon's sister) Rebecca helped found WIZO, the Women's Zionist Organization, in 1920, and ran it for 20 years with Vera Weizmann.

And the Daniel Sieff Institute, set up in memory of his son who had died, served as the base when the Weizmann Institute of Science was set up in 1948 (extract from Lawrence Joffe, 'End of a Jewish Saint', Jerusalem Report, 5 June 2000)

Indeed, in a book on M&S, Lord Marcus Sieff - long time Chairman of M&S - wrote that one of the fundamental objectives of M&S is to aid the economic development of Israel (Management: The Marks & Spencer Way, Weidenfield & Nicolson, 1990).
WIZO: Women's International Zionist Organization (1920-1970) by Ofra Greenberg

The British delegation to the World WIZO Founding Conference, held in Carlsbad, 1921.
(L to R): Miriam Marks, Miriam Sacher, Edith Eder, Rebecca Sieff, Helena Weisberg, Lady Samuel, Romana Goodman, Esther Feiwel, Henrietta Irwell and Ethel Solomon

Three factors combined to contribute to the establishment of the Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO): the political and social awakening of European women in general and British women in particular; the Zionist movement’s increased momentum upon the publication of the Balfour Declaration, and the transfer of its center of activity to Britain after World War I; and the personal biographies of WIZO’s founders.

The Ladies’ Committee of the Zionist Federation of Britain preceded WIZO. Dissatisfied with the limited role they were permitted to play in Zionist activity, the committee members, who included three founders of WIZO—Rebecca Sieff, Vera Weizmann and Romana Goodman—decided to establish a separate Zionist women’s organization in Britain. A general assembly to found the women’s federation was held on January 12, 1919, with the agreement of the British Zionist Federation. Twelve organizations of Zionist women also joined, as well as several individuals such as Henrietta Irwell and Lady Beatrice Samuel (née Franklin, 1871–1959). Most of the women who joined either had experience in public activity, whether in local Zionist women’s organizations or in the general Jewish community, or had a general interest in political movements.

Most of the women were wives of men who held senior positions in the Zionist Federation: for example, Rebecca Sieff was the wife of Israel Sieff (1889–1972); Edith Eder was the wife of Dr. Montague David Eder (1865–1936) and Vera Weizmann was married to Dr. Chaim Weizmann.

In 1918 they accompanied their husbands, members of the Zionist Commission for Palestine, on a tour of Palestine, where they held discussions with a great number of women engaged in pioneering work. Thus alerted to the significant problems faced by women and children, they returned to London with far-sighted reports on the needs of the population and plans for improving prevailing conditions by establishing social and welfare services and institutions for the agricultural and vocational training of young women.

On July 11, 1920, at the first Zionist conference held after World War I, Olga Ginsburg initiated the founding of the Women’s International Zionist Organization, together with representatives from organizations in Palestine, England, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Russia and South Africa.

It was decided to establish an office in Palestine which would be a branch of the world center in London and to divide the work between the two. In time, numerous other WIZO branches were set up in Jewish communities worldwide. Their main purpose was fundraising, whether by charging membership dues or by soliciting contributions to defined goals in Palestine.
How did the Zionists acquire land in Palestine?
Although the creation of the Jewish National Fund was originally proposed by Judah Alkalai in 1847 it had to wait until the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland in 1901 to become a reality. The Jewish National Fund (Keren Kayemeth LeYisrael) was established to buy land in Palestine for reclamation and Jewish settlement. In its first decade, the JNF built a worldwide fundraising organization based on sale of stamps, collection “Blue Boxes” in homes and schools and solicitation of donations. In the spring of 1903, JNF acquired its first parcel of land: 800 acres in Hadera. Other modest purchases were made in 1904 and 1908 in Lower Galilee, Judea, and the Lake Kinneret region, and two forms of settlement that would prove crucial in the land-acquisition enterprise were pioneered there: the cooperative (moshav) and the collective (kevutsa, later kibbutz).

From the start, the organization focused on greening the land through the planting of trees. JNF got involved in tree planting for many reasons, including as a way to fulfill the Biblical commandment. In order to solidify ownership of land purchased by JNF on behalf of the Jewish community, and in accordance with prevailing laws of the day, trees were planted whenever a new piece of land was purchased. In 1908, the first JNF trees were planted at Hulda: olive trees in memory of Theodor Herzl, the founding father of Zionism. In 1920, JNF expanded its role to help reclaim the swamps of Palestine. There quickly followed afforestation efforts. Since 1920, millions of trees have been planted in Israel by the Jewish National Fund.

Baron Benjamin (Edmond James) de Rothschild (1845-1934) enlisted in this cause after being petitioned by the leaders of Rishon Lezion, one of the First Aliya villages. His patronage embraced 12 settlements at all three levels of land redemption: purchase, reclamation and economically viable settlement.

To make these possible, he established an administration that, although staffed in part by condescending officials who evoked the independent-minded settlers’ resentment, institutionalized all three aspects of land redemption. The best-known settlements sponsored by Rothschild are Metulla, Zikhron Ya’akov, Rishon Lezion, and Rosh Pina. Metulla (est. 1896) is an example of a purchase that had the further advantages of controlling water sources and establishing the northern limit of Jewish settlement.

In 1900, Rothschild transferred the settlements, their agricultural enterprises, and 25,000 hectares of land to the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA, est. 1891), which he continued to support in various ways.

In a military biography of Moshe Dayan, the early Zionist activity is described this way:

“Using Rothschild’s money, these Jews purchased land from absentee Turkish landlords. To the Arab tenant farmers, the transfer of land from Turkish to Jewish ownership was of little consequence since the Jews rehired them as agricultural workers.”

By the time Israel became a state in 1948, JNF owned 12.5 percent of all the land of Israel on which 80 percent of Israel’s population now lives. With this ownership came the responsibility of transforming the land into a beautiful and fertile area that would be a suitable home for the new state.
T. E. Lawrence commented in The Seven Pillars of Wisdom:

"The first of all of us was Ronald Storrs, Oriental Secretary of the Residency, the most brilliant Englishman in the Near East, and subtly efficient, despite his diversion of energy in love of music and letters, of sculpture, painting, of whatever was beautiful in the world's fruit... Storrs was always first, and the great man among us".

Storrs is credited with a classic example of British understatement when referring to the behaviour of the British toward the many tribal and regional leaders that the British were trying to influence in the Great Game: "we deprecated the imperative, preferring instead the subjunctive or even, wistfully, the operative mood".
In 1917 Storrs became, as he said, "the first military governor of Jerusalem since Pontius Pilate"[2], for which purpose he was given the army rank of colonel.

In 1921 he became Civil Governor of Jerusalem and Judea. In both positions he attempted to support Zionism while protecting the rights of the Arab inhabitants of Palestine, and thus earned the hostility of both sides. He devoted much of his time to cultural matters, including town planning, and to Pro-Jerusalem, a cultural organization that he founded.

Sir Ronald Storrs wrote a book:
Lawrence of Arabia - Zionism and Palestine  Br Sir Ronald Storrs - 1937
The religious Jews of Jerusalem and Hebron and the Sephardim were strongly opposed to political Zionism, holding that God would bring Israel back to Zion in His own good time, and that it was impious to anticipate His decree.

The Zionist Commission travelled by train from Egypt, and after some contretemps whereby they were marooned awhile on the platform of Lydda Station, arrived by car in Jerusalem.

I received in the Governorate Major Ormsby-Gore and Major James de Rothschild, Political Officers, Lieut. Edwin Samuel, attached, Mr. Israel Sieff, Mr. Leon Simon, Dr. Eder, Mr. Joseph Cowen and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, President of the World Zionist Organization.

Monsieur Sylvain Levy, an anti-Zionist, was attached to the Commission as representative of the French Government. The party being under the official aegis of the British Government, I assembled in my office the Mayor of Jerusalem and the Heads of Communities in order that they and the visitors should meet, for the first time anyhow, in surroundings at once official and friendly.

When Has The British Empire  been more powerful?

A meeting of Bedouin and Circassian leaders (T.E. Lawrence, third from right).,_the_Va’ad_Leumi_and_the_Jewish_Agency,_Shira_Klein,_COJS.
The Zionist Commission

As early as November 1917, following the release of the Balfour Declaration, Chaim Weizmann began to plan a commission to Palestine which would advise the British authorities on the establishment of the Jewish National Home. Authorized by the British Foreign Office and supported by the Allied governments, the Zionist Commission (Va’ad ha-Tzirim in Hebrew) consisted of several Jewish delegates from Great Britain, France, and Italy. It was accompanied by Major William Ormsby-Gore and Major James de Rothschild, representing the British Government and military.

Headed at first by Weizmann, the Commission arrived in Palestine in April 1918, when the north of the country was still in Turkish hands and the south was under British military control. The Commission, which represented the Zionist Organization in Palestine, set about organizing the Jewish population, conducting relief work, establishing schools and hospitals, and laying the foundations for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. It also served as a liaison between the local Jews and the British authorities, whose military administration gave way to a civil one in July 1920. In 1921, the 12th Zionist Congress (the supreme authority in the Zionist Organization) decided to set up a Zionist Executive in Jerusalem, which soon replaced the Commission.

Chaim Weizmann (rechts) (* 1874) im Jahr 1948 neben Harry S. Truman


What do you see as their final objective?


The proposal was put in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists over several months in 1946.

In his book Has Man a Future?, Bertrand Russell - an advocate of World Government - describes how it developed, first as a proposal assembled by David Lilienthal, then in a form developed by Bernard Baruch (p. 25 & p. 97).

This "Baruch Plan" was canvassed in the issues of 1946 and put to Stalin. By the end of that year, Stalin had rejected it, on the grounds that it required submission to Washington, and the Cold War had begun.

The One World conspiracy has three factions: Tory (Imperial), International Socialist, and Zionist:

[ Now I would say this is in line with the "Winners" of WWII - U.S.A. - U.K. - U.S.S.R  and the Jewish scientists "WON" the war with the Atom/Fusion bomb(s).  The USA/UK - Pilgrim Society - Anglo-American Empire  are the "Tories" - These factions rule the world. There will probably never be in our lifetimes a "Global Government

But there already is a system in place of "Global Governance".

The people who truly rule Globally do not want anyone to be able to point there fingers at them and say "You are the ones that are responsible for all this! You must be removed!

So we are already seeing the "final solution" from our "masters", they and their helpers get richer and stronger while the average Joe gets weaker and poorer. The neo-feudal global system is upon us. Population reduction is already upon us, the older people just haven't died yet. If things haven't changed by 2040-50 there will be a population implosion.
Global starvation? Global epedemic?  WW 3/4 ? ]

see :

The British-Israel-World Federation is an organization that was founded in London July 3 1919, although its roots can be traced back to the 19th century. At one time this organization enjoyed the patronage of members of the British Establishment including HRH Princess Alice of Athlone, the Duke of Buccleuch Kt., the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Dysart, the Rt. Hon. the Countess-Dowager of Radnor, the Rt. Hon. Lord Gisborough, and the Rt. Hon. W F Massey (Prime Minister of New Zealand).
British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that people of Western European descent, particularly those in Great Britain, are the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. The concept often includes the belief that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David.[1][2]

Jordan Maxwell - The British-Israel World Federation & the Dawn of a New Day

Interesting records from Eisenhower and Kennedy regarding Israel were declassified in the 1990's:

YouTube - David Ben-Gurion's Vision - Science, the Negev and Israel's Future

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Jan 1995  
As early as 1958, the United States knew something about Dimona - the CIA's U2 reconnaissance program had detected unusual excavation and contruction work in the Negev desert. To the photo interpreters it looked unmistakably like a nuclear plant in the earliest phase of construction.

Some time in late 1958 or early 1959, this finding was reported to both President Eisenhower and the AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss. [And they did What ? Nothing? ]

In 1959, a delegation from the Max Planck Society, headed by its president Otto Hahn, visited the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel and established scientific contacts between German and Israeli scientists and researchers.

Following this meeting, the German government provided DM 3 million start-up capital for research projects and the exchange of scientists and researchers with the Weizmann Institute.

By Dec 2, 1960, the State Dept. had established that " a significant atomic installation was in fact being built near Beersheba"
On Dec 8 1960, CIA Director Allen Dulles reported in a meeting of the NSC " that Israel was constructing, with French assistance a nuclear complex in the Negev,"
and added that "CIA and AEC experts believe... that the Israel nuclear complex cannot be solely for peaceful puposes."
Dec 9 1960 , the Israeli reactor was the topic of a presidential conference. The minutes declassified in 1993, indicate that both the Sec of State Herter and CIA Director Allen Dulles referred to Dimona as "a plutonium production plant". Eisenhower commented that the cost of the plant was between 100 to 200 million dollars.

As early as 1958, the United States knew something about Dimona - the CIA's U2 reconnaissance program had detected unusual excavation and contruction work in the Negev desert. To the photo interpreters it looked unmistakably like a nuclear plant in the earliest phase of construction.

Some time in late 1958 or early 1959, this finding was reported to both President Eisenhower and the AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss. [And they did What ? Nothing? ]

So who was Lewis Strauss ? and why did he do  and say nothing about Israel's nuclear plutonium plant?
Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss

"Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, Jr. was born on January 31, 1896 in Charleston, West Virginia, to Lewis and Rosa (Lichtenstein) Strauss. He grew up in Richmond, and became a traveling salesman for his family's wholesale shoe business. In 1917, he presented himself to Herbert C. Hoover. At the time, Hoover was organizing volunteers in the cause of Belgian relief. Later, when Hoover became head of the Food Administration, Lewis L. Strauss became his personal secretary and accompanied him on several European missions. He worked for Hoover's election to the presidency in 1928, and maintained a life-long friendship with President Hoover until the latter's death in 1964.

"In 1919, Lewis L. Strauss was hired by the investment firm Kuhn, Loeb & Company, and in 1923 he married Alice Hanauer, a daughter of a partner in the firm.

In 1929, he himself became a partner in the firm.

One of Kuhn, Loeb & Company's founders was Jacob Schiff, the important American Jewish leader and philanthropist. As a result of Lewis L. Strauss' association with Kuhn, Loeb &. Company, he became friendly with many wealthy and influential American Jewish figures, especially the core members of the American Jewish Committee.

Between 1950 and 1953, he served as financial adviser to the Rockefeller family.

"Lewis L. Strauss maintained a keen interest in scientific and technological advancements, and was an early investor in Kodachrome. After the death of his parents from cancer, his interest in the atom led him to fund the construction of a surge generator to produce isotopes for cancer treatment.

Beginning in 1926, Lewis L. Strauss was in the Navy Reserve, and he entered active duty in 1941, becoming adviser to Navy Undersecretary James Forrestal.

He directed the development of the radar proximity fuse, conceived of the Big "E" war production incentive program, and

in 1945 was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral by President Truman.

In 1946, Truman appointed Lewis L. Strauss to serve on the Atomic Energy Commission, on which he served through 1950.

In 1953, President Eisenhower reappointed Lewis L. Strauss to the commission, this time as its chairman.

"As the breadth of the Papers of Admiral Lewis L. Strauss illustrates, Lewis L. Strauss was deeply committed to American Jewish life and Jewish welfare generally.

He served as a member of the board of directors of several important Jewish philanthropic, academic and communal organizations, and he also maintained a special interest in inter-religious affairs.

"In his lifetime, Lewis L. Strauss was thrust into public controversy on several occasions.

In the 1920s and 1930s, he played a central role in combating the anti-Semitic propaganda of Henry Ford and Father Charles E. Coughlin.

Also beginning in this period, he became a leading member of the American Jewish Committee and embroiled in disputes over Zionism and American Jewish politics, notably the American Jewish Conference.

Later, during his tenure as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, he attracted public attention when the White House suspended the security clearance of Commissioner J. Robert Oppenheimer. Lewis L. Strauss eventually voted against Oppenheimer's reinstatement to the Atomic Energy Commission, but he did seek to have him retained in the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study and other nuclear research enterprises.

In 1954, another controversy flared when the Atomic Energy Commission engaged the Dixon-Yates combine to erect a power plant in West Memphis, Arkansas. Lewis L. Strauss, a deeply conservative Republican, was eager then to admit private industry into the nuclear field. But liberals saw in the Dixon-Yates contract a threat to the Tennessee Valley Authority and public power. They attacked the contract so vigorously that President Eisenhower canceled it in 1955.

"In 1958, President Eisenhower appointed Lewis L. Strauss to be Acting Secretary of Commerce, and in 1959 he nominated him for the position. After a protracted public debate concerning ethical considerations, and one in which the specter of anti-Semitism was also raised, the Senate refused to confirm Lewis L. Strauss' nomination.

Following this episode, Lewis L. Strauss returned to private life. On January 21,1974, Lewis L. Strauss died at the age of 78 at his home in Brandy Station, West Virginia.
Other Rockefeller Foundation spin-offs include the influential Washington think-tank, the Brookings Institution, the National Bureau of Economic Research, whose findings play a critical role in manipulating the stock market; the Public Administration Clearing House, which indoctrinates the nation's municipal employees ; the Council of State Governments, which controls the nation's state legislatures;

and the Institute of Pacific Relations, the most notorious Communist front in the United States. The Rockefellers appeared as directors of this group, funneling money to it through their financial advisor, Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, of Kuhn, Loeb Company.
Microfilmed from the holdings of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library

What did the President know, and when did he know it?
The Eisenhower Diaries file was created and maintained by Ann C. Whitman, Eisenhower's
personal secretary and the principal record keeper for the Oval Office.
7 DDE Diary (1). April 1954. 51pp.
Major Subjects: Stanley High on Eric Johnston and the Middle East;
to Swede Hazlett regarding information between U.S. and the world;
Army-McCarthy hearings;
French and Indochina, and British policies;
Lewis Strauss regarding Bernard Baruch comments on atomic weapons;
Dr. Robert Oppenheimer case.
In June 1947 Albert Einstein had a brainstorm about how to save the world from nuclear holocaust.
He called the secretary of state, George C. Marshall, who called Lewis Strauss, a member of the newly formed Atomic Energy Commission.
Mr. Strauss, in turn, called his assistant, a 37-year-old investment banker named William T. Golden…”You can imagine how excited I was [to meet Einstein],” Mr. Golden, now 91, recalled on a recent morning in his 50th floor office in Midtown Manhattan.

Einstein said it was essential that a world army be created, under the leadership of the U.S. Unless this was done there would be an atomic war in the next 10 years.”

Chaim Weizmann (rechts) (* 1874) im Jahr 1948 neben Harry S. Truman
President Harry S Truman (first to recognize the provisional government of Israel) at the White House receives gift of a sacred Torah from Israeli President Chaim Weizmann. Truman poses with Secretary of State George Marshall at the White House. President Truman signs a document dealing with the Marshall plan. Marshall Plan food aid lowered from a ship. President Truman speaking to an audience about peace and describing it as the goal of his life. View of the White House.

Lewis Strauss was an original Atomic Energy Commissioner, appointed in 1946 by Truman, who went on to be the AEC’s chief under Eisenhower (1953-58) during the most rabid expansion of nuclear testing which came to define the arms race policy of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).  Strauss promoted energy from nuclear plants saying it was “too cheap to meter”. Strauss got his start in government on Herbert Hoover’s Food Administration staff as the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee liason, then a Rothschild  hospital president, a Kuhn, Loeb & Co. partner and a US Navy Rear Admiral before his appointment to the AEC.

Why 6 million? - JDC Through the Year
Lewis Strauss dropped out of highschool to recover from Typhoid fever, and went on to sell shoes for his father’s wholesale business –which he claims to have done for four years before leaving at the age of 17 to volunteer in Washington DC for Hoover’s Food Administration. (c.1914). Strauss became Hoover’s ‘secretary’, aide-de-camp, and liason for the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee.

During the same time period, at age 21, he became the president of the Rothschild’s hospital -the Jewish Hospital on Deformities and Joint Diseases (the HJD, see the Henry Frauenthal page)- a position he held through 1925.

In 1923, Lewis married Alice Hanauer, the daughter of Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Jerome Hanauer. She was 18 and he was 27. Within five years, Strauss became a full Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner. He left the hospital in 1925 and joined the USNaval Intelligence service.
In 1939, under the imminence of war, Strauss volunteered for active duty; he was promoted to Rear Admiral  managing the Bureau of Ordnance and became a special ‘troubleshooter’ for Sec. of the Navy, James Forrestal. Personal memoirs about Strauss from his circle of friends indicate that he and ”Wild” Bill Donovan (OSS) introduced Albert D. Lasker to his second wife, Mary Woodard. He remained a close friend of the Laskers who themselves gained unprecendented influence over American health policy.
As the AEC chief (1953-1958), Strauss initiated the “Sunshine” campaign –a PR campaign to equate fallout with sunshine and assuage public fear. During this time Strauss was also on the board of Sloan-Kettering.  

The danger of fallout was kept from the public well until 1958-1959 when doctors and dentists began reporting the cumulative effects and levels of measurable ionizing chemicals in the teeth and bones of American youngsters.
in February of 1917 Strauss chanced to read about Herbert Hoover's efforts to save the Belgians from starvation and Hoover's recent appointment as US Food Administrator," and volunteered to serve without pay for a few months as Hoover's administrative assistant. "One of these assignments involved the coordination of Food Administration programs with the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

This brought him into contact with Felix Warburg, a partner in the international banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company," and Warburg recruited him to the firm. He was an active partner in Kuhn, Loeb until 1941.
Sir William Wiseman, "the chief British spy master in America during World War I," was a Kuhn, Loeb partner and advisor to John Schiff, grandson of Jacob Schiff and the chief partner. (The Warburgs, by Ron Chernow. Random House, 1993, pp 612-613.) He was a correspondent of Strauss between 1941 and 1962.

Eustice Mullins writes: "During World War I, J. Henry Schroder Banking Company played an important role behind the scenes.

No historian has a reasonable explanation of how World War I started.

Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo by Gavril Princips, Austria demanded an apology from Serbia, and Serbia sent the note of apology. Despite this, Austria declared war, and soon the other nations of Europe joined the fray.

Once the war had gotten started, it was found that it wasn't easy to keep it going.

The principal problem was that Germany was desperately short of food and coal, and without Germany, the war could not go on.

John Hamill in The Strange Career of Mr. Hoover explains how the problem was solved.

He quotes from Nordeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, March 4, 1915, 'Justice, however, demands that publicity should be given to the preeminent part taken by the German authorities in Belgium in the solution of this problem. The initiative came from them and it was only due to their continuous relations with the American Relief Committee that the provisioning question was solved.'

Hamill points out 'That is what the Belgian Relief Committee was organized for--to keep Germany in food.'

"The Belgian Relief Committee was organized by Emile Francqui, director of a large Belgian bank, Societe Generale, and a London mining promoter, an American named Herbert Hoover, who had been associated with Francqui in a number of scandals which had become celebrated court cases, notably the Kaiping Coal Company scandal in China, said to have set off the Boxer Rebellion, which had as its goal the expulsion of all foreign businessmen from China.

Hoover had been barred from dealing on the London Stock Exchange because of one judgement against him, and his associate, Stanley Rowe, had been sent to prison for ten years. With this background, Hoover was called an ideal choice for a career in humanitarian work....

As his principal assistant in the U.S. Food Administration, Hoover chose Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, who was soon to become a partner in Kuhn Loeb Company, marrying the daughter of Jerome Hanauer of Kuhn Loeb..." (Secrets of the Federal Reserve, by Eustice Mullins. Chapter 7, The Hitler Connection.)

Frauenthals married into the Rothschild, Heinsheimer, Loeb and Sloane families.

Henry Frauenthal, married to Clara Heinsheimer, and his brother Herman, married to Minnie Rothschild, opened a hospital at the Rothschild residence-turned-dispensary in 1905. It was called the Jewish Hospital on Deformities and Joint Diseases at 588 Lexington Avenue, New York City. In time, through expansion and new facilities, the Hospital for Joint Diseases became an orthopedic surgery world leader.

1912 – March 26, Henry and Clara sail back to NYC (from a trip in France) on the Titanic.
(Among the dead, Isador Strauss, Macy’s co-owner and brother of Nathan Sr.)
1917 – the 21-yr-old Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss replaces Gattle as hospital president.
(L.L. Strauss may be a close cousin to the aforementioned Strausses (i.e. Macy's ))

This is just unreal - Eisenhower and Strauss in 1967 during the Vietnam war  :
The Impact of Scarce Water Resources on the Arab-Israeli Conflict

C. 1967-1982

In the wake of the 1967 war, former President Eisenhower, who 10 years earlier had sent Eric Johnston to the Mideast to negotiate a regional water plan, made public a new cooperation scheme he and former Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis Strauss had formulated which they called simply, "A Proposal for Our Time."

Their plan, based this time on new technology, called for three nuclear desalination plants, two on the Mediterranean coast and one at the Gulf of Aqaba, producing a combined output of about 1400 MCM of freshwater a year-roughly the usable flow of the entire Jordan River-as well as "an enormous amount" of electric power.65

As Eisenhower and Strauss saw it, the availability of these new sources of energy and water would make possible an entire 'agro-industrial complex,' making an additional 4500 km2 of barren land arable, and
providing work and agriculture to help settle more than a million Arab refugees."6

The project, which would cost about a billion (1967) dollars, would be funded by an international corporation set up for the purpose and supervised by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Moreover, Eisenhower predicted that the "collaboration of Arab and Jew in a practical and profitable enterprise of this magnitude might well be the first, long step toward a permanent peace." 67

In the summer of 1967, Eisenhower communicated his project to President Lyndon Johnson. On July 28, the State Department announced the appointment of an interim Director of Water for Peace.68 In the fall,
Senator Howard Baker from Tennessee introduced a senate resolution endorsing the plan as a method of "easingpolitical tensions in the Middle East through international cooperation."69 The resolution was approved unanimously by the Foreign Relations Committee and adopted without dissent by the Senate.

The project was studied in detail over the course of the next five years by a technical group centered at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories.

Despite the overwhelming political and technical obstacles, the plan finally faltered on the basis of its economic evaluation.  [ RIGHT! ]
In 1933, Strauss had been asked by the American Jewish Committee to attend an international conference in London on the Jewish plight. There he met Dr. Chaim Weizmann and listened as the conferees agreed that an "astronomical sum" of money from the United States must be raised to help resettle what could be millions of Jews. Strauss, then fervently opposed to a Jewish state in Palestine, was the only delegate to raise his voice in dissent during the conference, a position he came to· regret. Six years later, Strauss would spend much time and effort in an unsuccessful attempt to convince the British government to donate a large chunk of colonial Africa for resettlement by European refugees, Jews and non-Jews alike. With the Nazi blitzkrieg only months away, money was no longer an object: Strauss and his American colleagues, who included Bernard Baruch, the financier, were agreed that as much as $300 million could be raised. [1] It was too late; Strauss's strong feelings about that failure-and the failure of world leadership -- are explicit in his memoir: "The tidal wave of war swept over the continents and across the ocean and a world in shock closed its eyes, figuratively and literally, to the plight of the unfortunate beings who were engulfed."
 In his memoirs, published in 1962, Strauss wrote bitterly about the Nazi Holocaust and those -including himself-who did not do enough: "The years from 1933 to the outbreak of World War II will ever be a nightmare to me, and the puny efforts I made to alleviate the tragedies were utter failures, save in a few individual cases-pitifully few."
At some point in his AEC career, Strauss, who attended most of the international conferences on the peaceful uses of the atom, met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann. It was a relationship shared with few; neither Strauss's biographer nor his son, Lewis, who has had access to all of his father's personal papers, knew that the two had met.

The friendship with Bergmann provides the strongest evidence of Strauss's sympathy for the Israeli nuclear weapons program.

In the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get Bergmann a two-month appointment as a visiting fellow at the prestigious Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton. Strauss, who never graduated from college, had joined the institute's board of trustees during World War II, and he continued to be one of its major contributors and fund-raisers. The institute rarely dealt with chemists-its fellows are. physicists and mathematicians-but the rules were bent for Strauss. Bergmann was a bitter man at that point; he had been forced to resign his posts at the defense ministry and as head of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission after his continued objections to Prime Minister Levi Eshkol's decision-in part because of pressure from President Lyndon B. Johnson-to delay full-scale nuclear weapons production.

I promise to start a recap and timeline page regarding all this.... But lets move on/forward to Nixon....

One thing it seems that Israel had bombs in the early sixties but not unofficially/officially till the 1969/1970's...

Nixon and NSSM 40 - Nixon doc's just released in 2006!!!
Israel Crosses the Threshold

Senior Nixon Administration Officials Considered Confronting Israel over Nuclear Weapons in 1969 but President Nixon Declined, Deciding that Washington Could Live with an Undeclared Israeli Bomb, According to Newly Declassified Documents and a Study in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists  Posted - April 28, 2006

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 189

Washington, DC, April 28, 2006 - Today the National Security Archive publishes for the first time 30 recently declassified U.S. government documents disclosing the existence of a highly secret policy debate, during the first year of the Nixon administration, over the Israeli nuclear weapons program.

Broadly speaking, the debate was over whether it was feasible--either politically or technically--for the Nixon administration to try to prevent Israel from crossing the nuclear threshold, or whether the U.S. should find some "ground rules" which would allow it to live with a nuclear Israel. The documents published by the Archive are the primary sources for an article by Avner Cohen and William Burr, "Israel crosses the threshold," that appears in the May-June 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. The article is now available on-line at the Bulletin's Web site. An edited version of the article will also appear in The Washington Post's Sunday "Outlook" section on April 30, 2006.


Among the key findings in the article:

1969 was a turning point in the U.S.-Israeli nuclear relationship. Israel already had a nuclear device by 1967, but it was not until 1968-1969 that U.S. officials concluded that an Israeli bomb was about to become a physical and political reality. U.S. government officials believed that Israel was reaching a state "whereby all the components for a weapon are at hand, awaiting only final assembly and testing."

In the first months of the Nixon administration, senior officials such as Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird believed it was important that Washington try to check Israeli nuclear progress for the sake of stability in the Middle East.

In April 1969 national security adviser Henry Kissinger issued National Security Study Memorandum (NSSM) 40 requesting the national security bureaucracy to develop options for dealing with the Israeli nuclear problem. A Senior Review Group (SRG), chaired by Henry Kissinger, was formed to deliberate and propose avenues for action to the President.

The SRG outlined policy objectives to President Nixon and proposed initiating a probe with Israeli Ambassador Rabin designed to achieve those objectives. Nixon approved the SRG's proposal for action but declined to use deliveries of advanced F-4 Phantom jets as leverage for the probe. This decision was fateful for the entire exercise.

On July 29, 1969 Ambassador Rabin was summoned by Acting Secretary of State Elliott Richardson and Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard as the first step in the probe. The two officials pressed Rabin on three issues: (1) the meaning of Israel's "non-introduction" pledge; (2) Israel's signature on the NPT; (3) Israel's intentions on the missile issue. Rabin provided no replies and subsequently proposed to leave the whole issue for the meeting between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir in late September.

On the eve of Meir's visit the State Department prepared a background paper for the President concluding that "Israel might very well now have a nuclear bomb" and certainly "had the technical ability and material resources to produce weapons grade uranium for a number of weapons."
No written record of the meeting between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir on September 26 is available, but it was a key event in the emergence of the 1969 US-Israeli nuclear understanding. Subsequent documents suggest that Meir pledged to maintain nuclear restraint-no test, no declaration, no visibility-and after the meeting the Nixon White House decided to "stand down" on pressure on Israel.

On October 7, 1969 Ambassador Rabin formally provided his belated answers to the US questions: Israel will not become a nuclear power; Israel will decide on the NPT after its election in November; Israel will not deploy strategic missiles until 1972.

On February 23, 1970 Ambassador Rabin informed Kissinger that, in light of President Nixon's conversation with Meir in September 1969, Israel "has no intention to sign the NPT."

Subsequently, the White House decided to end the secret annual U.S. visits to the Israeli nuclear facility at Dimona. Lower-level officials were not told of the decision and as late as May 1970 they were under the impression that the visits could be revived.

By 1975, in keeping with the understanding with Israel, the State Department refused to tell Congress that it was certain that Israel had the bomb, even though U.S. intelligence was convinced that it did.

The newly declassified documents are from State Department records and Nixon Presidential Materials at the National Archives, College Park. They represent, however, only a small fraction of a large body of documents on NSSM 40 that remain classified. To elucidate the U.S. government debate over the issue of the Israeli bomb the National Security Archive has filed declassification requests for those key documents.
The Untold Story of Israel's Bomb
By Avner Cohen and William Burr

Sunday, April 30, 2006; Page B01
On Sept. 9, 1969, a big brown envelope was delivered to the Oval Office on behalf of CIA Director Richard M. Helms. On it he had written, "For and to be opened only by: The President, The White House." The precise contents of the envelope are still unknown, but it was the latest intelligence on one of Washington's most secretive foreign policy matters: Israel's nuclear program. The material was so sensitive that the nation's spymaster was unwilling to share it with anybody but President Richard M. Nixon himself.

The now-empty envelope is inside a two-folder set labelled "NSSM 40," held by the Nixon Presidential Materials Project at the National Archives. (NSSM is the acronym for National Security Study Memorandum, a series of policy studies produced by the national security bureaucracy for the Nixon White House.) The NSSM 40 files are almost bare because most of their documents remain classified.

With the aid of With the aid of recently declassified documents , we now know that NSSM 40 was the Nixon administration's effort to grapple with the policy implications of a nuclear-armed Israel. These documents offer unprecedented insight into the tense deliberations in the White House in 1969 -- a crucial time in which international ratification of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was uncertain and U.S. policymakers feared that a Middle Eastern conflagration could lead to superpower conflict. Nearly four decades later, as the world struggles with nuclear ambitions in Iran, India and elsewhere, the ramifications of this hidden history are still felt.

Israel's nuclear program began more than 10 years before Helms's envelope landed on Nixon's desk.

In 1958, Israel secretly initiated work at what was to become the Dimona nuclear research site. Only about 15 years after the Holocaust, nuclear non-proliferation norms did not yet exist, and Israel's founders believed they had a compelling case for acquiring nuclear weapons.

In 1961, the CIA estimated that Israel could produce nuclear weapons within the decade.

The discovery presented a difficult challenge for U.S. policymakers. From their perspective, Israel was a small, friendly state -- albeit one outside the boundaries of U.S. security guarantees -- surrounded by larger enemies vowing to destroy it. Yet government officials also saw the Israeli nuclear program as a potential threat to U.S. interests. President John F. Kennedy feared that without decisive international action to curb nuclear proliferation, a world of 20 to 30 nuclear-armed nations would be inevitable within a decade or two.

The Kennedy and Johnson administrations fashioned a complex scheme of annual visits to Dimona to ensure that Israel would not develop nuclear weapons. But the Israelis were adept at concealing their activities. By late 1966, Israel had reached the nuclear threshold, although it decided not to conduct an atomic test.

By the time Prime Minister Levi Eshkol visited President Lyndon B. Johnson in January 1968, the official State Department view was that despite Israel's growing nuclear weapons potential, it had "not embarked on a program to produce a nuclear weapon." That assessment, however, eroded in the months ahead. By the fall, Assistant Defence Secretary Paul C. Warnke concluded that Israel had already acquired the bomb when Israeli Ambassador Yitzhak Rabin explained to him how he interpreted Israel's pledge not to be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the region. According to Rabin, for nuclear weapons to be introduced, they needed to be tested and publicly declared. Implicitly, then, Israel could possess the bomb without "introducing" it.

The question of what to do about the Israeli bomb would fall to Nixon. Unlike his Democratic predecessors, he and his national security adviser, Henry A. Kissinger, were initially skeptical about the effectiveness of the NPT. And though they may have been inclined to accommodate Israel's nuclear ambitions, they would have to manage senior State Department and Pentagon officials whose perspectives differed. Documents prepared between February and April 1969 reveal a great sense of urgency and alarm among senior officials about Israel's nuclear progress.

As Defence Secretary Melvin R. Laird wrote in March 1969, these "developments were not in the United States' interests and should, if at all possible, be stopped." Above all, the Nixon administration was concerned that Israel would publicly display its nuclear capabilities.

Apparently prompted by those high-level concerns, Kissinger issued NSSM 40 -- titled Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program -- on April 11, 1969. In it he asked the national security bureaucracy for a review of policy options toward Israel's nuclear program. In the weeks that followed, the issue was taken up by a senior review group (SRG), chaired by Kissinger, that included Helms, Undersecretary of State Elliot Richardson, Deputy Defence Secretary David Packard and Joint Chiefs Chairman Earle Wheeler.
Over time, the tentative Nixon-Meir understanding became the foundation for a remarkable U.S.-Israeli deal, accompanied by a tacit but strict code of behaviour to which both nations closely adhered. Even during its darkest hours in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel was cautious not to make any public display of its nuclear capability.

Yet set against contemporary values of transparency and accountability, the Nixon-Meir deal of 1969 now stands as a striking and burdensome anomaly. Israel's nuclear posture is inconsistent with the tenets of a modern liberal democracy. The deal is also burdensome for the United States, provoking claims about double standards in U.S. nuclear non-proliferation policy.

It is especially striking to compare the Nixon administration's stance toward Israel in 1969 with the way Washington is trying to accommodate India in 2006. As problematic as the proposed nuclear pact with New Delhi is, it at least represents an effort to deal openly with the issue.

Unlike the case of Iran today -- where a nation is publicly violating its NPT obligations and where the United States and the international community are acting in the open -- the White House in 1969 addressed the Israeli weapons program in a highly secretive fashion. That kind of deal-making would be impossible now.

Without open acknowledgment of Israel's nuclear status, such ideas as a nuclear-free Middle East, or even the inclusion of Israel in an updated NPT regime, cannot be discussed properly. It is time for a new deal to replace the Nixon-Meir understandings of 1969, with Israel telling the truth and finally normalizing its nuclear affairs.

Licorne, July 3rd, 1970

These are four scanned pictures of hardcopies I possess of the French nuclear test codenamed Licorne, which was fired on July 3rd, 1970 . The French army had those pictures taken on site. Those pictures were readily available at the time at Tahiti and Moruroa military base, and mine have been quite degraded. I scanned them and tried to restore them

In 1957, soon after Suez and the resulting diplomatic tension with both the USSR and the United States, French president René Coty decided the creation of the C.S.E.M. in the then French Sahara, a new nuclear tests facility replacing the C.I.E.E.S.[7] With the return of Charles de Gaulle to the presidency of France in the midst of the May 1958 crisis, the final decisions to build a bomb were taken, and a successful test took place in 1960. Since then France has developed and maintained its own nuclear deterrent.
In 1956 the French agreed to secretly build the Dimona nuclear reactor in Israel and soon after agreed to construct a reprocessing plant for the extraction of plutonium at the site. The following year Euratom was created and under cover of the peaceful use of nuclear power the French signed deals with Germany and Italy to work together on nuclear weapons development.[8] The West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer told his cabinet that he "wanted to achieve, through EURATOM, as quickly as possible, the chance of producing our own nuclear weapons".[9] The idea was short-lived. In 1958 de Gaulle became President and Germany and Italy were excluded.
France is understood to have tested neutron or enhanced radiation bombs in the past, apparently leading the field with an early test of the technology in 1967 [10] and an 'actual' neutron bomb in 1980
Saharan experiments centers (1960–1966)
Further information: Gerboise Bleue and Agathe (atomic test)
A series of atmospheric tests was conducted by the Centre Saharien d'Expérimentations Militaires ("Saharan Military Experiments Center") from February 1960 until April 1961.
The first French atmospheric nuclear test, called "Gerboise bleue" ("blue jerboa") took place on 13 February 1960 in the French Sahara, during the Algerian War (1954–62). The explosion took place at 40 km from the military base of Reggane, which is the last town on the Tanezrouft Track heading south across the Sahara to Mali, and 700 km south of Béchar.[14] The device had a 70 kiloton yield. Although Algeria became independent in 1962 France continued nuclear tests there until 1966 although the later tests were underground rather than atmospheric. The General Pierre Marie Gallois was named le père de la bombe A ("Father of the A-bomb").
Three other atmospheric tests were carried out from 1 April 1960 to 25 April 1961. These four atmospheric tests were carried out at with a forward base at Hammoudia near Reggane. Military, workers and the nomadic Touareg population of the region were assisted at the test sites, without any significant protection. At most, a shower after each test according to L'Humanité.[15] Gerboise Rouge (5kt), the third atomic bomb, half as powerful as Hiroshima, exploded on 27 December 1960, provoking protests from Japan, USSR, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria and Ghana.[16]
After the independence of Algeria on 5 July 1962, following the 19 March Evian agreements, the French military moved to In Ecker, also in the Algerian Sahara. The Evian agreements included a secret article which stated that "Algeria concede... to France the use of certain air bases, terrains, sites and military installations which are necessary to it [France]" during five years.
Pacific experiments center (1966–1996)
A total of 193 nuclear tests were carried out in Polynesia from 1966 to 1996.
[edit] Atmospheric tests at Mururoa & Fangataufa
Further information: Canopus (nuclear test)
The French began development of the hydrogen bomb and built a new test range on the French Polynesian islands of Mururoa and Fangataufa. On 24 August 1968 France succeeded in detonating a thermonuclear weapon - codenamed Canopus - over Fangataufa. A fission device ignited a lithium 6 deuteride secondary inside a jacket of highly enriched uranium to create a 2.6 megaton blast which left the whole atoll uninhabitable because of radioactive contamination.
By 1968 only France and China were detonating nuclear weapons in the open air and the contamination caused by the H Bomb blast led to a global protest movement against further French atmospheric tests

Marcoule Nuclear Site (French: Site nucléaire de Marcoule) is a nuclear plant in the Chusclan and Codolet communes, near Bagnols-sur-Cèze in the Gard department of France, which is in the touristic, wine and agricultural Côtes-du-Rhône region. The plant is around 25 km north west of Avignon, on the banks of the Rhone.

Operational since 1956, Marcoule is a gigantic site run by the atomic energy organization Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) and Areva NC.

The first industrial and military plutonium experiments took place in Marcoule. Diversification of the site was started in the 1970s with the creation of the Phénix prototype fast breeder reactor, which was operational until 2009, and is nowadays an important site for decommissioning nuclear facilities activities. The Phénix reactor is likely to be succeeded by the sodium-cooled fast reactor ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technical Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) in the 2015-2020 time frame.
French officials reciprocated the Israeli trust: Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam "at will."

One obvious reason for the carte blanche was the sheer brilliance of the Israeli scientists and their expertise, even then, in computer technology. The French would remain dependent for the next decade-the first French nuclear test took place in 1960  -- on Israeli computer skills.

A second reason for the Israeli presence at Marcoule was emotional: many French officials and scientists had served in the resistance and maintained intense feelings about the Holocaust. And many of France's leading nuclear scientists were Jewish and strong supporters of the new Jewish state, which was emerging-to the delight of these men-as France's closest ally in the Middle East.

info on Baron Erich Von Goldschmidt Rothschild  - he seems to have sold his "famous" art/book collection in 1930-31 with the rise of Hitler and he must have left germany during the war. I have not been able to find a bio - All I know is he lived in Germany and lived from 1899-1987...

the Goldschmidt-Rothschild branch:

Goldschmidt-Rothschild family is originally from Frankfurt am Main in Germany .

 Its members are descended from the union in 1878 in Minna Caroline von Rothschild (1857-1903), a daughter of Baron Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild (1828-1901), the last representative of the branches in Frankfurt and Naples in the famous family, and Banker's Maximilian Benedict Goldschmidt .  It changed its name to Goldschmidt-Rothschild in 1878, and was ennobled (with the title of baron ) in 1903 .

The name Rothschild in Frankfurt this will remain so until his death in 1940 in his palace at Bockenheimer Landstrasse where the Nazis had allowed to keep a room

Maximilian von Goldschmidt came in 1862 in Frankfurt in his father's bank Hayum Benedict Goldschmidt (1798-1873), which he shared with his brother Adolf Hayum Benedict Goldschmidt led (1838-1918) until the death of her father's  Then the brothers decided to give up the banking business and to leave Frankfurt. . While Adolphe first to Paris and then to London , drew Maximilian went to Berlin .

Not least through his marriage to the heiress Minna Caroline Rothschild Baroness von Rothschild (1857-1905) in 1878, he was regarded as the richest individual in the richest family of the German Reich .  With an estimated fortune of 163 million gold marks, he was even richer than the German Emperor.

Maximilian and his wife, Minna, had five children:
Erich (1894-1987) - founded in exile in the U.S., where the Egoro Corp..

Israel Nuke tests:
by  Warner D. Farr, LTC, U.S. Army
In 1972, two Israeli scientists, Isaiah Nebenzahl and Menacehm Levin, developed a cheaper, faster uranium enrichment process.  It used a laser beam for isotope separation.  It could reportedly enrich seven grams of Uranium 235 sixty percent in one day.80  Sources later reported that Israel was using both centrifuges and lasers to enrich uranium.81

Questions remained regarding full-scale nuclear weapons tests.  Primitive gun assembled type devices need no testing.  Researchers can test non-nuclear components of other types separately and use extensive computer simulations.  Israel received data from the 1960 French tests, and one source concludes that Israel accessed information from U.S. tests conducted in the 1950s and early 1960s.  This may have included both boosted and thermonuclear weapons data.82

Underground testing in a hollowed out cavern is difficult to detect.  A West Germany Army Magazine, Wehrtechnik, in June 1976, claimed that Western reports documented a 1963 underground test in the Negev.  Other reports show a test at Al-Naqab, Negev in October 1966.83

A bright flash in the south Indian Ocean, observed by an American satellite on 22 September 1979, is widely believed to be a South Africa-Israel joint nuclear test.  It was, according to some, the third test of a neutron bomb.  The first two were hidden in clouds to fool the satellite and the third was an accident—the weather cleared.84 

Experts differ on these possible tests.  Several writers report that the scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory believed it to have been a nuclear explosion while a presidential panel decided otherwise.85  President Carter was just entering the Iran hostage nightmare and may have easily decided not to alter 30 years of looking the other way.86  The explosion was almost certainly an Israeli bomb, tested at the invitation of the South Africans.  It was more advanced than the “gun type” bombs developed by the South Africans.87  One report claims it was a test of a nuclear artillery shell.88  A 1997 Israeli newspaper quoted South African deputy foreign minister, Aziz Pahad, as confirming it was an Israeli test with South African logistical support.89

Controversy over possible nuclear testing continues to this day

In June 1998, a Member of the Knesset accused the government of an underground test near Eilat on May 28, 1998.  Egyptian “nuclear experts” had made similar charges.  The Israeli government hotly denied the claims

They release this info in 2007: George Koval - also connections to the Soviet J.A.R.
Spy’s Path: Iowa to A-Bomb to Kremlin Honor

President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia and intelligence officers at a ceremony posthumously honoring George Koval, left, an American-born Soviet spy who infiltrated the Manhattan Project.

Published: November 12, 2007
He had all-American cover: born in Iowa, college in Manhattan, Army buddies with whom he played baseball.

George Koval also had a secret. During World War II, he was a top Soviet spy, code named Delmar and trained by Stalin’s ruthless bureau of military intelligence.

Atomic spies are old stuff. But historians say Dr. Koval, who died in his 90s last year in Moscow and whose name is just coming to light publicly, was probably one of the most important spies of the 20th century.

On Nov. 2, the Kremlin startled Western scholars by announcing that President Vladimir V. Putin had posthumously given the highest Russian award to a Soviet agent who penetrated the Manhattan Project to build the atom bomb.

The announcement hailed Dr. Koval as “the only Soviet intelligence officer” to infiltrate the project’s secret plants, saying his work “helped speed up considerably the time it took for the Soviet Union to develop an atomic bomb of its own.”

Since then, historians, scientists, federal officials and old friends have raced to tell Dr. Koval’s story — the athlete, the guy everyone liked, the genius at technical studies. American intelligence agencies have known of his betrayal at least since the early 1950s, when investigators interviewed his fellow scientists and swore them to secrecy.
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George Abramovich Koval (Russian: Жорж (Георгий) Абрамович Коваль, Zhorzh Abramovich Koval, December 25, 1913 – January 31, 2006) was a Soviet intelligence officer. According to Russian sources, Koval's infiltration of the Manhattan Project as a Glavnoye Razvedyvatel'noye Upravleniye (GRU) agent "drastically reduced the amount of time it took for Russia to develop nuclear weapons." [1]

Koval was born to Jewish immigrants in Sioux City, Iowa, USA.

Shortly after reaching adulthood he traveled with his parents to the Soviet Union to settle in the Jewish Autonomous Region near the Chinese border.

Koval was recruited by the Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate, trained, and assigned the code name DELMAR. He returned to the United States in 1940 and was drafted into the US Army in early 1943. Koval worked at atomic research laboratories and, according to the Russian government, relayed back to the Soviet Union information about the production processes and volumes of the polonium, plutonium, and uranium used in American atomic weaponry, and descriptions of the weapon production sites.

After the war, Koval left on a European vacation but never returned to the United States.

In 2007 Russian President Vladimir Putin posthumously awarded Koval the Hero of the Russian Federation decoration for "his courage and heroism while carrying out special missions".
He graduated in 1929 at the age of 15. Koval studied electrical engineering at the University of Iowa for the next two-and-a-half years. Meanwhile, his parents left Sioux City as the Great Depression deepened. Abram Koval became the secretary for ICOR, the Organization for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union.[3] Founded by American Jewish Communists in 1924, the group helped to finance and publicize the development of the "Jewish Autonomous Region" – the Communist answer to Jewish emigration to the British Mandate of Palestine then being undertaken by the Zionist movement.[4]

The Koval family emigrated in 1932, traveling with a United States family passport.[3] They settled in Birobidzhan, near the border of Manchuria
George Koval improved his Russian language skills in the collective and began studies at the Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology in 1934. At the university he met and married fellow student Lyudmila Ivanova. Koval graduated with honors in five years and received Soviet citizenship
Later, Koval was recruited by the Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate (Главное Разведывательное Управление), or GRU. By the time he received his degree he had left Moscow under orders as part of a subterfuge.

He was drafted into the Soviet army in 1939 to explain his sudden disappearance from the city.

Though his parents had relinquished their US family passport, Koval returned to the United States in 1940,[5] replacing a spy recalled during Stalin's purges.[6]

Arriving in San Francisco, he made his way to New York City. According to Arnold Kramish, an American colleague he befriended and with whom he re-established contact in 2000, it was there that Koval assumed deputy command of the local GRU cell. This outpost operated under the cover of the Raven Electric Company, a supplier to firms such as General Electric. Koval told coworkers he was a native New Yorker and an only child.

He ingratiated himself with everyone he met.[5] While Koval originally worked under a pseudonym, gathering information on toxins for use in chemical weapons, his handlers decided to have him work under his real name.[7]

During the beginning of World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had re-introduced the draft (conscription) in September 1940, and Koval registered for it on January 2, 1941. Raven Electric Company secured him a year's deferment from service until February 1942.

According to historian Vladimir Lota, Koval's handlers wanted him to steal information about chemical weapons, and felt that he would not be able to do so while drafted.

When the deferment expired, however, Koval was inducted into the United States Army. He received basic training at Fort Dix in New Jersey before being sent to the Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina. There, Koval served as a private in the 3410th Specialized Training and Reassignment Unit. On August 11, 1943, he was transferred to the Army Specialized Training Program, a unit established in December 1942 to provide talented enlistees with an education and technical training
...the Manhattan Project. Koval was assigned to Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the time, Project scientists were researching enriched uranium and plutonium-based bombs, with the Oak Ridge laboratories central to the development of both.[8] The Project suffered from a lack of human resources, and asked the Army for technically qualified men.[7]
Oak Ridge workers operating mass spectrometers. Koval's job as a health officer meant he had his own car and access to many sensitive areas of the facility.Koval enjoyed free access to much of Oak Ridge;[7] he was made a "health physics officer", and monitored radiation levels across the facility.

According to Federal Bureau of Investigation records, the job gave him top-secret security clearance

Koval was transferred from Oak Ridge to a top-secret lab in Dayton, Ohio on June 27, 1945, where polonium initiators were fabricated.
The initiator for the plutonium bomb was, according to Russian military officials, "prepared to the 'recipe' provided by military intelligence agent Delmar [Koval]". [9]

See also:
George Koval: Atomic Spy Unmasked

Iowa-born and army-trained,
how did George Koval manage to steal a critical U.S. atom bomb secret for the Soviets, that is only now coming to light?  
By Michael Walsh  Smithsonian magazine, May 2009
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; Yiddish: ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome gegnt[12]) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) situated in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and Heilongjiang province of China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan.

Soviet authorities established the autonomous oblast in 1934. It was the result of Joseph Stalin's nationality policy, which allowed for the Jews of the Soviet Union to receive a territory in which to pursue Yiddish cultural heritage within a socialist framework
According to Joseph Stalin's national policy, each of the national groups that formed the Soviet Union would receive a territory in which to pursue cultural autonomy in a socialist framework. In that sense, it also responded to two supposed threats to the Soviet state:

Judaism, which ran counter to official state policy of atheism
Zionism — the advocacy of a Jewish national state in Palestine — which countered Soviet views of nationalism.
The Soviets envisaged setting up a new "Soviet Zion", where a proletarian Jewish culture could be developed. Yiddish, rather than Hebrew, would be the national language, and a new socialist literature and arts would replace religion as the primary expression of culture.

Stalin's theory on the National Question regarded a group as a nation only if it had a territory, and since there was no Jewish territory, per se, the Jews were not a nation and did not have national rights. Jewish Communists argued that the way to solve this ideological dilemma was by creating a Jewish territory, hence the ideological motivation for the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Politically, it was also considered desirable to create a Soviet Jewish homeland as an ideological alternative to Zionism and the theory put forward by Socialist Zionists such as Ber Borochov that the Jewish Question could be resolved by creating a Jewish territory in Palestine. Thus Birobidzhan was important for propaganda purposes as an argument against Zionism which was a rival ideology to Marxism among left-wing Jews.
"Soviet Union": The Jewish story about Birobidzhan (Birobidjan) 1928-1970

Flag of Birobidzhan province

The Organization for Jewish Colonization in Russia (Idishe Kolonizatsie Organizatsie in Rusland), commonly known by its transliterated acronym of ICOR, was a Communist-sponsored mass organization in North America devoted to supporting settlement in the Jewish socialist republic of Birobidzhan in the Soviet Union. The organization was founded in the United States in 1924 and soon spread to Russia.


The founding meeting was held in New York City in December 1924 and the initial mission of the organization was to raise money to fund Jewish collective farms in Crimea and to provide a humanitarian alternative for Jews facing anti-Semitism in Europe.

One of ICOR's initial patrons was Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company who contributed more than $2 million to ICOR.[1]

When, in 1928, the Soviet Union abandoned the idea of Jewish settlement in Crimea and endorsed instead the eventual formation of a Jewish Autonomous Republic in the eastern USSR, ICOR followed suit. ICOR worked closely with the Komzet, the Soviet agency facilitating Jewish settlement, and its partner, the OZET.
The chief American behind the establishment of the new organization was William W. Cohen, a banker and stockbroker who had been a Congressman from New York's 17th Congressional District from 1926 to 1928.[2] Cohen saw the establishment of a Jewish Autonomous Region in the USSR as providing an important "haven for the salvage and rehabilitation of many thousands of Jews suffering in the infernos of central and eastern Europe" and supported the establishment of Ambidjan with his money, time, and effort...

Shaul Eisenberg - Permindex - Red China Nuclear Program - JFK Assassination


Evidence suggests that "Red China's" first explosion of a nuclear device was in fact a joint venture between Israel and Red China.

Shaul Eisenberg, Merchant of Death

Another and probably the primary reason for Kennedy's assassination is he fact that he made it quite clear to Israeli prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, that under no circumstances would he agree to Israel becoming a nuclear state.

The Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz states on February 5, 1999, in a Review of Avner Cohen's book "Israel and the Bomb" the following :

"The murder of American President John F. Kennedy brought to an abrupt end the massive pressure being applied by the U.S. Administration on the government of Israel to discontinue the nuclear program... The book implied that, had Kennedy remained alive, it is doubtful whether Israel would today have a nuclear option."

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Pol Pott Funded By the Empire

Max Fisher - Eisenberg and the JFK Assassination:
Final Judgment
China Tests Atomic Bomb, Asks Summit Talk On Ban; Johnson Minimizes Peril
Oct. 16, 1964

Hong Kong, Oct. 16--Communist China announced tonight that it had exploded its first atom bomb. Peking pledged that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons in the future.

A communique stated that a nuclear test was successfully conducted at 3 P.M. Peking time (3 A.M., Eastern daylight time) in the western region of China. No details were disclosed. [In Washington, the test site was reported to be in Sinkiang, a province bordering the Soviet Union.]

"The success of China's nuclear test is a major achievement of the Chinese people in the strengthening of their national defense and the safeguarding of their motherland as well as a major contribution by the Chinese people to the cause of the defense of world peace," the communique asserted.

An accompanying Government statement declared that the purpose of developing nuclear weapons was to protect the Chinese people "from the danger of the United States' launching a nuclear war."
Communist China Explodes Its First Nuclear Device
By Robert J. Samuelson,
Published: Saturday, October 17, 1964

Experts appeared to agree on two points:

* that it will take from four to ten years before the Chinese can develop an operational nuclear delivery system
Yesterday's test caught few experts by surprise. On Sept. 29, Secretary of State Dean Rusk announced that the United States expected the Chinese to set off their first atomic bomb "in the near future."
New Economy or Transnational Ownership?
The Global Political Economy of Israel
Shimshon Bichler, Haifa University - Jonathan Nitzan, York University

The world is ours, we are its lords, and ours it shall remain.
– Jack London, The Iron Heel



Together, the two processes of centralisation and transnationalisation made the ownership scene dynamic to an extent never seen before in Israel. And indeed, incessant restructuring was now the third hallmark of the Israeli power structure. What was until a decade ago a very rigid structure, has turned into one of permanent flux. For instance, during the first 50 years of its existence, Koor was under the joint ownership of the Histadrut and Bank Hapoalim. And then, in a matter of ten years, the company was sold and bought several times, first to Shamrock, an investment arm of the Disney family, who then sold it to Bronfman and Kolber, who in turn dismembered it by selling off unwanted assets and buying new ones. Similarly, state assets, once privatised, began rotating between the different actors.

The Israel Corporation and Israel Chemical Industries, for instance, were sold to one of Israel’s biggest foreign investors, Saul Eisenberg.

When Eisenberg died in 1997, his family resold the companies to the Ofer brothers, who then proceeded to chop it to pieces, keeping the parts they liked and selling those they didn’t.

The investment company Clal, which since its inception in 1962 was held jointly by IDB, Bank Leumi and Bank Hapoalim, was taken over by IDB and merged into its operation through massive reorganisation.

All in all, the ownership structure remains as concentrated, complicated and interlinked as before; but now it was also constantly changing.

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The Global Political Economy of Israel
Jonathan Nitzan and Shimshon Bichler

First published 2002 by Pluto Press
By now, our reader must find it a little difficult to make head and tail of this complicated genealogy of the military, politics and business – and yet the plot continues to thicken.

The Elyashar clan, with which these figures were intermarried, dates back to the Ottoman period. The family represented various  European business interests and Zionist organisations, and generally got along well with the regional superpower of the day, supplying food to the Turkish army during the First World War (in partnership with the famous Palestinian Hussaini family), and to the British forces during the Second World War. From this perspective, Israel’s independence in 1948 was somewhat of a setback, particularly since the Israeli Defence Ministry seemed to favour ‘Ashkenazi’ suppliers like Saul Eisenberg and Marcus Katz, over ‘Sephardi’ dealers such as the Elyashars.
Like many of its contemporaries, the Saharov family started its career in the wood business, from which it ventured into new areas such as insurance, banking, weaponry and, of course, public service.

Their eldest son, Yekhezkel, was Chaim Weitzman’s bodyguard and Israel’s first chief-of-police.

His deputy in the force was Amos Ben-Gurion, who was nominated for the post while his father, David Ben-Gurion, was Prime Minister. In their infinite wisdom, both Chief Saharov and Deputy Ben-Gurion were hectically mixing public duty with private business, and eventually, after dozens of scandals, were forced to quit their posts. Both were given a second chance.

Amos Ben-Gurion was made manager of Israel’s largest clothing company, Ata, which belonged to Swiss
financier Tibor Rosenbaum
, and whose Israeli representative at the time was Amos Manor, former head of Shin Beit (Israel’s internal security service). When Rosenbaum’s Banque de Crédit Internationale collapsed with much fanfare in the mid-1970s, Ata was passed on to Saul Eisenberg, who replaced Amos Ben-Gurion with Yossef Hermelin, another former head of the Shin Beit. ...