MyGen-logo [ Outlaw Genealogy  | Bruce History  | Lost Chords ]
[ Projects | News | FAQ | Suggestions | Search | HotLinks  | Resources | Ufo  ]

Outlawe Research Journal - Page 14

Some new information to post ( using new publication tools hmm lets see...  )

Here we have a pair of War of Roses warriors : John Outlawe a Norfolk Archer and Richard Outlaw a Naval Gentleman Man-at-Arms

Interesting ties to Ireland as well with John Outlawe's connection to Richard of York

1437 - John Outlawe -  03/23/1437 - Archer  - Les Andelys - Captain Thomas Picot - John Talbot Earl Shrewsbury -  BNF, MS. Fr. 25773, no. 1175

1441 - John Outlawe -  1441 - Archer  - Expedition France - Richard Duke of York - Richard Duke of York -  TNA, E101/53/33, m3

1445 - John Outlawe -  06/15/1445 - Archer  - Retinue Kings Councillor - Sir William Oldhall -  TNA, E101/53/33, m3

1442 - Richard Outlaw - 09/14/1442 - Man-at-Arms - Naval Service - Captain Miles Stapleton - BL, Add. MS. 21411, f. 30 ( search Owtlawe )

Outlawe, John   03/23/1437 - 1441 - 06/15/1445

Outlawe, Richard 09/14/1442

Name Origin Status Rank Service Captain Lieutenant / Sub-Captain Commander Service Date Source Type Reference
Outlawe, John Archer Detachment, garrison of Regneville, Vexin; mustered: Les Andelys Picot, Thomas Talbot, John (1385 - 1453) earl of Shrewsbury 14370323 Muster Roll BNF, MS. Fr. 25773, no. 1175
Outlawe, John Archer Expedition, France York, Richard of (1411 - 1460) duke of York York, Richard of (1411 - 1460) duke of York 1441 Retinue roll TNA, E101/53/33, m3
Outlawe, John Archer Official Retinue, king`s councillor Oldhall, William, Sir (c. 1390 - 1460) 14450615 Muster Roll BL, Add. MS. 21411, f. 30
Outlaw, Richard Man-at-Arms Naval Service Stapleton, Miles 14420914 Muster Roll TNA, E101/54/3, no2_m1

What is very interesting about this is that John Outlawe became part of the royal court  of Richard Duke of York . 
"Official Retinue, king`s councillor" Richard was in direct line to be King.

Sir William Oldhall (1390?–1460) was an English soldier and Yorkist supporter, who served as Speaker of the House of Commons of England between 1450-51

The son and heir of Sir Edmund Oldhall of Narford, Bodney, and East Dereham, Norfolk, by Alice, daughter of Geoffrey de Fransham of the same county, he was born about 1390. As an esquire in the retinue of Thomas Beaufort, 1st Earl of Dorset, he was present at the siege of Rouen in 1418–19. He also served under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury in the expedition for the relief of Crevant, July 1423, and won his spurs at the battle of Verneuil on 17 August 1424. About this date he was made seneschal of Normandy. In the subsequent invasion of Maine and Anjou he further distinguished himself, and was appointed constable of Montsoreau and governor of St. Laurent des Mortiers.[2]

In the summer of 1426 Oldhall was employed in Flanders on a mission to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy concerning Jacqueline, Duchess of Gloucester, then a prisoner in the duke's hands. In October 1428 he was detached by the council of Normandy to strengthen the garrison of Argentan, then in danger of falling by treachery into the hands of Jean II, Duke of Alençon. He was present at the great council held at Westminster, 24 April–8 May 1434, on the conduct of the war in France, and also at the council of 24 February 1438–9. In 1440 he was chamberlain to Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, and a member of his council, and the following year was made feoffee to his use and that of his duchess Cecilia of certain royal manors. In the struggle for the retention of Normandy he commanded the castle of La Ferté Bernard, which fell into the hands of the French on 16 August 1449.[2]

Oldhall was with the Duke of York in Wales in September 1450; was returned to parliament for Hertfordshire on 15 October of the same year, and on 9 November following was chosen Speaker of the House of Commons. Indicted in 1452 for complicity in the insurrection of Jack Cade and the subsequent rebellion of the Duke of York, he was found guilty, outlawed, and attainted on 22 June. He took sanctuary in the chapel royal of St. Martins-le-Grand, where he remained in custody of the king's valet until after the First Battle of St Albans on 22 May 1455, but obtained his release and the reversal of his outlawry and attainder on 9 July. He was again attainted in November 1459 as a fautor and abettor of the recent Yorkist insurrection; but on the accession of Edward IV of England the attainder was treated as null and void.[2] He died in London in November 1460, and was buried in St Michael Paternoster Royal.[3]

Besides his Norfolk estates Oldhall held (by purchase) the manors of Eastwich and Hunsdon, Hertfordshire. On the latter estate he built, at the cost of seven thousand marks, a castellated brick mansion. It remained in the Crown, notwithstanding the avoidance of his second attainder, and was converted by Henry VIII into a royal residence. In 1558 it was granted by Elizabeth I to Sir Henry Cary. It was later transformed into the existing Hunsdon House.[2],_3rd_Duke_of_York

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York KG (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in various offices of state in Ireland, France, and England, a country he ultimately governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI. His conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become king on Henry's death. But within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle.

Although Richard never became king himself, he was the father of King Edward IV and King Richard III.

Ireland (1445–1450)[edit]

York returned to England on 20 October 1445 at the end of his five-year appointment in France. He must have had reasonable expectations of reappointment. However, he had become associated with the English in Normandy who were opposed to the policy of Henry VI's Council towards France, some of whom had followed him to England (for example Sir William Oldhall and Sir Andrew Ogard). Eventually (in December 1446) the lieutenancy went to Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, who had succeeded his brother John. During 1446 and 1447, York attended meetings of Henry VI's Council and of Parliament, but most of his time was spent in administration of his estates on the Welsh border.,_1st_Earl_of_Shrewsbury

John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and 1st Earl of Waterford KG (1384/1387 – 17 July 1453), known as "Old Talbot", was a noted English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, as well as the only Lancastrian Constable of France.

Château Gaillard (Les Andelys)
Château Gaillard (Les Andelys)

In January 1436, he led a small force including Thomas Kyriell and routed La Hire and Xaintrailles at Ry near Rouen. The following year (1437) at Crotoy, after a daring passage of the Somme, he put a numerous Burgundian force to flight. In December 1439, following a surprise flank attack on their camp, he dispersed the 6000 strong army of the Constable Richemont, and the following year he retook Harfleur. In 1441, he pursued the French army four times over the Seine and Oise rivers in an unavailing attempt to bring it to battle.

Lord Shrewsbury[edit]

Around February 1442, Talbot returned to England to request urgent reinforcements for the Duke of York in Normandy. In March, under king's orders, ships were requisitioned for this purpose with Talbot himself responsible for assembling ships from the Port of London and from Sandwich.[14]

On Whit Sunday, 20 May, Henry VI created him Earl of Shrewsbury. Just five days later, with the requested reinforcements, Talbot returned to France where in June they mustered at Harfleur. During that time, he met his six-old year daughter Eleanor for the first time and almost certainly left the newly created Countess Margaret pregnant with another child.[15]

In June 1443, Talbot again returned to England on behalf of the Duke of York to plead for reinforcements, but this time the English Council refused, instead sending a separate force under Shrewsbury's brother-in-law, Edmund Beaufort. His son, Sir Christopher stayed in England where shortly afterwards he was murdered with a lance at the age of 23 by one of his own men, Griffin Vachan of Treflidian on 10 August at "Cawce, County Salop" (Caus Castle).[

Interesting connections to the Duke of York - Ireland Wales and Clare ...

Richard, Duke of York, as Viceroy of Ireland. 1447-1460; With Unpublished Materials for His Relations with Native Chiefs

Richard Duke of York


The Soldier in Later Medieval England

1442 - Richard Outlaw - 09/14/1442 - Man-at-Arms - Naval Service - Captain Miles Stapleton - TNA, E101/54/3, no2_m1

Miles Stapleton

Birth:  1395 Ingham Norfolk, England
Death:  Oct. 1, 1466 Ingham Norfolk, England

Sir Miles Stapleton, KG (1395 – 1 October 1466) was Lord of the Manor of Ingham, Norfolk and de jure Baron Ingham of Ingham, Norfolk, and Lord of the Manor of Bedale, North Yorkshire.

Sir Miles Stapleton was the son of Sir Brian Stapleton, of Ingham (1379 - 1438), Sheriff of Norfolk, a veteran of the Battle of Agincourt, and Cecily Bardolf (d. 1432), daughter to William Bardolf, 4th Baron Bardolf, of Wormegay, Norfolk, and Agnes de Poynings.

Sir Miles Stapleton married firstly Elizabeth Felbrigge, daughter of Sir Simon Felbrigge, Knight of the Garter, of Felbrigg, Norfolk by Margaret, perhaps of Teschen, a kinswoman and lady in waiting to English queen Anne of Bohemia. They had no issue. He married secondly in 1438, Katherine de la Pole (1416-1488, buried in Rowley Abbey, Oxfordshire), daughter and heiress to Sir Thomas de la Pole (aft. 1397-1433), who died in France while a hostage for his brother William, son to Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. They had two known daughters, the eldest, Elizabeth Stapleton, married before March 1464, Sir William Calthorpe, Knt., of Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. The younger daughter, Jane (or Joan) Stapleton (d. 1519), married Sir Christopher Harcourt, Knt., of Great Ashby, (Ashby Magna), Leicestershire (d. 1474).

He was a Knight of the Shire for Suffolk, and for Norfolk also, and was High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1440. In 1441-2 Sir Miles Stapleton and Thomas Tudenham were summoned as Knights and M.P.'s for Norfolk to attend the Privy Council.

Stapleton was in the French wars, where he is said to have single-handedly taken seven prisoners. He had a Royal Commission for the safekeeping of the seas in 1442. The following year he and his brother, Bryan Stapleton of Crispings, in Happisburgh, & Hasilden, Norfolk, received the thanks of the Privy Council in connection with a riot at Norwich. 


A man-at-arms was a soldier from the High Medieval to Renaissance periods who was typically well-versed in the use of arms and served as a fully armoured heavy cavalryman.[a] A man-at-arms could be a knight or nobleman, a member of a knight or nobleman's retinue or a mercenary in a company under a mercenary captain. Such men could serve for pay or through a feudal obligation. The terms knight and man-at-arms are often used interchangeably, but while all knights equipped for war certainly were men-at-arms, not all men-at-arms were knights.

Social status

The social structure of the Anglo-Norman society of England was relatively rigid, however, one of the easiest ways for a man to improve his social rank was through military service; another method was through the church. In the Norman states, unlike in many other contemporary societies, the knighting of men of common birth who had demonstrated ability and courage on the field of battle was possible. Although rare, some non-knightly men-at-arms did advance socially to the status of knights. The knighting of squires and men-at-arms was sometimes done in an ignoble manner, simply to increase the number of knights within an army (such practice was common during the Hundred Years' War). In chivalric theory, any knight could bestow knighthood on another, however, in practice this was usually done by sovereigns and the higher nobility. It is recorded that the great mercenary captain Sir John Hawkwood knighted a number of his followers, as many as twenty on one occasion, though he could reasonably be expected to provide the income his created knights required to maintain their new status.[23] Attempts to restrict the power of commanders to make knights would increase during the 16th century and by the end of Elizabeth I's reign, the practice had all but ceased.[24]

Although a knight bachelor, a knight banneret and all grades of nobility usually served as men-at-arms when called to war, the bulk of men-at-arms from the later 13th century came from an evolving social group which became known as the gentry. The man-at-arms could be a wealthy mercenary of any social origin, but more often he had some level of social rank based on income, usually from land. Some came from the class known as serjeants but increasingly during the 14th century they were drawn from an evolving class of esquire. Esquires were frequently of families of knightly rank, wealthy enough to afford the arms of a knight but who had thus far not been advanced to knightly status or perhaps had avoided it because they did not want the costs and responsibilities of that rank. Also found serving as men-at-arms were the lowest social group of the gentry, known by the 15th century simply as gentlemen.[25]

The proportion of knights among the men-at-arms varied through time. Between the 1280s and 1360s, figures between 20-30% were commonplace. Thereafter, there was a rapid decline, with the figure dropping to 6.5% in 1380. A slight rise is recorded to 8% at Agincourt, perhaps because this was a royal army, but thereafter the figure continued to decline and by 1443, the Duke of Somerset mustered only 1.3% knights among his men-at-arms.[26]

Now the Timothy Outlaw Geneoloy book can be found in an online library:

Outlaw Geneology - Albert Timothy Outlaw - 1930

Ok I finished doing a DNA test and now I need to comfirm other Outlaw have the same type I-P109:

I-P109 is a subgroup of I-M253



Paternal Haplogroup
Haplogroup I-M253 Migration
Origin: Haplogroup I-M253 can be found at levels of 10% and higher in many parts of Europe, due to its expansion with men who migrated
northward after the end of the Ice Age about 12,000 years ago. It reaches its highest levels in Denmark and the southern parts of Sweden and

As an example another family with i-P109:

M253 (I1) -P109-S10891-Y13930-Y14225

According to YFull's calculations Haplogroup I-P109 was formed about 4100 years ago and each of the major subbranches (Y14999, Y3664, Y5621, S10891 and Y3662) were formed about 3300 years ago. Therefore, the spread of the P109 marker began between 2000 to 1300 BC or in the Nordic Bronze Age . The TMRCA for S10891 is 3200 years ago, for Y13930 (or FGC21732) it's 2400 years ago and for Y14225 it's 800 years ago (around 1200 AD). Y13930 (FGC21732) is the major division within S10891 that appears to separate the mainly British Isles branch from the Scandinavian (mainly Norwegian & Swedish) branch. If YFull's calculations are correct (and based on the limited sample size)  it's possible that Norse settlement in the British Isles began at least as early as 200 BC.  Several Bronze Age archaeological sites in the British Isles contain Baltic Amber (and other trade goods) that must have moved (along with traders and possible migrants) across the North Sea by boat.

Our Y-DNA-111 markers (for Jeff Waugh) indicate that we are M253-L22-P109 (I1a1b1 by ISOGG).
Big-Y DNA results indicate a new terminal haplogroup of I-S10891 (Nordtvedt May 26, 2014).
Yfull identifies new subclade under IS10891 of I-Y13930 (April, 2015).
Yfull identifies new subclade under I-Y13930 of I-Y14225 (June, 2015)
FTDNA identifies FGC21765 under S10891 (Nov, 2015)

Waugh Famly i-p109
P-109 Distribution in Europe

"...the spread of the P109 marker began between 2000 to 1300 BC or in the Nordic Bronze Age .  "

Map of the Nordic Bronze Age Culture c 1200 BC
Map of the Nordic Bronze Age Culture c 1200 BC

The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC. The Bronze Age culture of this era succeeded the Late Neolithic Stone Age culture and was followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The archaeological legacy of the Nordic Bronze Age culture is rich, but the ethnic and linguistic affinities of it are unknown, in the absence of written sources. Some scholars also includes sites in what is now northern Germany, Pomerania and Estonia in the Baltic region, as part of its cultural sphere.


Phylogeny of I1

Phylogeny of I1

DF29+ represents 99% of I1 lineages.

See also:

Haplotype 1 which was described in the first issue and ”Ht 2” refers to Haplotype 2 which is the one in focus now. Of all paternal lines emerging in Sweden, Ht 2 is the most frequently occuring. As far as we know, 3.5 % of paternal lineages from Sweden carry it. Compare this to 2.4 %, the current corresponding share of Ht 1. (The share of the third most common haplotype is 1,5 %.)

Ht 2 is the modal (ancestral) haplotype of both haplogroup I-L22 and its subclade I-P109. At DYS390 and DYS385a (the second and fifth marker in the sequence used by FTDNA), Ht 2 has the allele values 23 and 14 respectively. Before I-L22 was born, those allele values were 22 and 13. Ht 1 differs from Ht 2 in that DYS385b (the sixth marker) mutated once more to a value of 15 instead of the previous 14. Ht 1 is modal haplotype of the groups within I-L22 which Kenneth Nordtvedt calls ”ultra-Norse types 2−9” (of which ”type 2” has the SNP L813) and that branched off between 1,500 and 1,800 years ago. (Kenneth Nordtvedt,, The I1modalities.xls, 2013-12-22, and the I-L22 Project.)

That Ht 2 is older that the earlier described Ht 1 corresponds well with the fact that it also has a larger amount of carriers. Observe that in each particular test taker’s case his 12-marker haplotype maybe hasn’t been unchanged since the Bronze age. As with all haplotypes, one must understand that a certain haplotype doesn’t appear on one branch only. Random mutations make that some lineages from related branches get the same allelle values. Also, a lineage which has had Ht 2 for several thousand years can have been hit by a recent mutation, resulting in the lineage ending up in a neighbouring haplotype instead. SNP testing confirms which branch one belongs to

Families within I-P109 with this haplotype
28 men with the name Chisholm have tested positive for Ht 2. They make up the core group (including the aristocratic line) of those with this name. The name was assumed after Cheseholm in Roxburghshire in the southeastern part of Scotland at some point in time no later than the 13th century. According to tradition, the family had Norman origin. Sir Robert de Cheseholme was in 1359 appointed constable of the royal castle Urquhart, now a ruin by the lake Loch Ness. The Chisholms established themselves, through the marriage of his son, as a highland clan with the castle Erchless, Strathglass (see picture) as their family seat. The estate was owned by the family until it was sold in 1937. In addition to these Chisholms, there is a branch of 11 test takers who write their names Chisolm and Chism. They have a mutation DYS385b = 15 which evidently appeared after the name was assumed. The first record of the Chisholm coat of arms with a boar’s head couped is from the year 1296. It later developed to include to wildmen supporters and a crest with a hand holding aloft a dagger through the boar’s head.

25 test takers have the name Rice, most of whom are known descendants of Edmund Rice (1594−1663). He emigrated to Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1630s. His background in England is unknown, except for the fact that he was born in Buckinghamshire. Edmund Rice ended up owning a lot of land in Sudbury, serving as a deacon, and being an influential figure in the area. Since ten of his twelve children lived to adulthood and had children of their own, he has many descendants. The Edmund Rice (1638) Association, Inc. was founded in 1912. The picture of the memorial, which was erected in 1913, is from their website. There are other 12-marker haplotypes that are close to Ht 2 among the Rices, but it’s clear that Ht 2 was the original within the family.

22 by the name of Gentry can lead their genealogies back to North Carolina and other places in USA during the 18th century, some of them to Nicholas Gentry, born ca 1655 in Essex, England.

Most test takers of the name Hamby, 11 ones, have Ht 2. The name is derived from the estate Hamby in Lincolnshire, England, where one Walter (ca 1120−ca 1180) was the first known man with the name (he wrote himself de Hamby).
5 Belangers prove to have a recent connection and with this haplotype. It’s a French-Canadian family, originally from Normandy, where François Belanger was born 1586 at Plouigneau. The haplotype is the original one for this family (two others with the name has one mutation each, on different markers).

The distribution of Ht 2 in different haplogroups
I-M253 (I1): 69 confirmed examples. I-L214 (also I1): 1 example from England. I-P30 (also I1): 1 example from UK.
I-L22 (I1a1b): 32 examples.
I-P109 (I1a1b1): 38 examples.
I-L205 (I1a1b2): 8 examples, 2 each from England and the Netherlands and 1 from Scotland.
I-Z74 (I1a1b3): 1 example from England. I-Z75 (also I1a1b3): 1 example from England.
I-L258 (I1a1b3a1): 5 examples, 4 from Finland and 1 from Poland.
I-L813 (I1a1b3b): 1 example from the Netherlands.
I-CTS9346 (without ISOGG name, below I1a1b3b): 1 example from Sweden.
I-L300 (I1a1b4): 3 examples from Finland.
I-Z60 (I1a2a1): 1 example from the Netherlands.
I-L573 (I1a2a1c): 1 example from Germany.
I-Z63 (I1a3): 7 examples, 1 each from Czech Republic, Poland, Russian Federa­tion and UK.

Haplogroups I-M253 (also called I1) and its two subclades I-L22 and I-P109 are commonly found in men in Scandinavia, the latter two especially in Norway and Sweden.

According to the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project, the SNP mutation called P109 is "between 1 and 2 percent of male lineages in Sweden and Norway. However, it is rare in the male population of Finland. It is present in trace frequencies of less than 1 percent in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, and the British Isles." I-P109 formed about 4,100 years ago while the Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor for people in this subclade is about 3400 years ago[13] and probably originated in a man who lived in the Oslo fiord between present day Sweden and Norway who was the progenitor of all men with the P109 mutation in their Y-chromosomes including William Simonds and his descendants

It was then spread from Scandinavia to other areas by the Vikings and perhaps also by those Anglo-Saxon groups with origins in what is now Denmark such as the Jutes and Angles. The Vikings raided and settled in the eastern part of England from the 9th to the 11th centuries,[15] whereas the Jutes and Angles came to Britain during the Anglo-Saxon migrations of the 5th century. But because the Danish Vikings and the Jutes and Angles all came to Britain from the same part of Scandinavia, it is difficult at this time to distinguish the Y-DNA of one of these groups from the others and to determine if the ancestors of those with the P109 SNP in Britain were Vikings or Anglo-Saxons

The I-P109 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project - Y-DNA Classic Chart

So I found some Outlaw DNA tests and it does appear the families in America are related to the familes in the UK. 
 There are really not enough examples though and not any indication of Haplogroup (I-P109?)  Yet ...
There still is the possibility of connection to other families .

Outlaw DNA Compare

Outlaw Genetic Distance

If two men share a surname, how should the genetic distance at 67 Y-chromosome STR markers be interpreted?

1 or 2 Tightly Related A 65/67 or 66/67 match between two men who share the same surname (or a variant) indicates a close relationship. It is most likely that they matched 36/37 or 37/37 on a previous Y-DNA test. Very few people achieve this close level of a match. All confidence levels are well within the time frame that surnames were adopted in Western Europe.

Also for reference the latest I-p109 tree:

Interesting sweden map of I-P109 distribution ( I1a1b1 old designation)
The Swedish Haplogroup Database (SHD) is a free and independent database with the purpose to collect the haplogroups of historical Swedish persons and thus create a tool to include this knowledge into traditional genealogy. The aim is also to present statstics of haplogroup distribution and contribute to the knowledge about pre-historic migration in Scandinavia. Genetic science shows us that all humans originate in Africa and we differ very little from each other.
Sweden i-P109 distribution  Sweden H13a1a1a


Interesting how Sir Robert de Vere was a signer of the Magna Carta (1215) was "Outlawed" by King John and excommunicated by the Pope and later went on the fifth crusade and died , was also thought to be the real "Robin Hood" ...   Then I find this list of English crusaders and Sir William de Waterville is in it too ...

1210 - Roger Utlag - Witness - Lease Steeple Bumpstead  EssexSir Robert de Vere - Gilbert de Baillol - William de Watevill - Richard de Kann - Cartulary of the Knights of St John

Robert De Vere CrusaderMagna Charta Surety, 1215

Hereditary Master (Lord) Chamberlain of England

3rd Earl of Oxford.

In the 12th Century, Melusine's descendant, Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford, and legal pretender to the Earldom of Huntingdon, was appointed as King Richard's steward of the forest lands of Fitzooth. As Lord of the Greenwood, and titular Herne of the Wild Hunt, he was a popular people's champion , and, as a result, he was outlawed for taking up arms against King John. It was he who, subsequently styled Robin Fitzooth, became the prototype for the popular tales of Robin Hood.

Robert participated in the ill fated Fifth Crusade with King John, probably as a penance/ peacemaking effort with the church who had excommunicated him during the Magna Carta struggles. It appears he was on Crusade in the company of his illegitimate son Roger at the Battle of Damietta, Egypt in 1221, the year they both died. Sources say he died in Italy of wounds sustained in this battle, on his way home. The crossed feet on his effigy represent he was on crusade in his lifetime.

Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford - Wiki

Robert de Vere (aft. 1164 - bef. 1221)

Son of and
Brother of , , and


DNA Connections It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Robert by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree: Bob Weaver : Family Tree DNA Y-DNA Test 37 markers, haplogroup R-M269, Ysearch AFUAH, FTDNA kit #388435

Saher IV de Quincy Suffix Earl of Winchester Born ca. 1165 Gender Male Died 3 Nov 1219 Damietta, Egypt The war being over, Saer determined to fulfil his crusader's vow. In April 1218 he caused the consecration of the abbey church of Garendon, Leicestershire, of which he was patron in right of his wife, and in 1219 sailed with Robert Fitzwalter and others for the Holy Land, arriving at Damietta during its siege by the crusaders. Shortly after his arrival he fell sick, and commanded that after his death his heart and vitals should be burnt, and the ashes carried to England and buried at Garendon, which was done. He died on 3 Nov., and was buried at Acre (Annals of Waverley, an. 1219). He is described as an accomplished and strenuous warrior (Historia Anglorum, ii. 243). A drawing of his arms is given in the works of Matthew Paris (vi. Additamenta, 477; compare the engraving from his seal in Doyle, Official Baronage). He gave many gifts to Garendon Abbey, and was a benefactor to the canons of Leicester. He died heavily in debt to the king (Rotuli Finium, i. 50). His wife Margaret died in 1235. He had four sons: Robert, Roger (see below), Reginald, and a second Robert. Saer also left a daughter Hawyse, who married Hugh de Vere, earl of Oxford, about 1223,

Jerusalem Delivered: An Epic Poem, in Twenty Cantos; Tr. Into ..., Volume 1
List of English Crusaders

Sir Robert De Vere
Sir William De Waterville

The List which I have formed of English Crusaders will be interesting to the antiquary.
For a few of the names, I have been indebted to J. C. Sneyd Kynnersley, Esq., St. John's College, Cambridge, and for a few to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle and other descendants of crusading families ; but the mass have been gleaned from a patient perusal of monkish annals. It is much to be regretted that of the thousands who assumed the Cross in England, so few have been recorded by our old chroniclers : in consulting however the MSS. in the Ashmolean Museum, I was so fortunate as to find a list of those who accompanied King Richard*, which made a considerable addition to their number ; others, which may have escaped my own research, will perhaps be furnished by those who are more deeply read in county histories, in genealogy, and heraldry, and who may derive gratification from this first attempt to chronicle the names of those, who, crowding from the English shores, participated in the fame of Duke Robert or Cceur de Lion, of Prince Edward, or of Salisbury. Mr. Mills has, it is true, in his admirable " History of the Crusades," portrayed in its real colours the nature of those singular expeditions ; but who would not willingly continue the illusion which, whether derived from the songs of our early minstrels, or the charming tale of Tasso, invests the character
of the Crusader with I know not what of devotion, generosity, and love?

Voice animetta mia*.
My life, my dulcet little soul ! oh when
Shall I return to the dear spot, or near it,
Where we were so conjoined, and so divided ?
But a fond glance of the' eye, a pleasant smile,
A courteous salutation, a kind nod,
Two blessed love-words, and two sighs, shall be
Of my so long, long sufferings the reward, —
Or rather the fresh tortures, — ties, bonds, chains,
Torches, and darts, and arrows, to transfix,
Bind, and inflame me still !
Nor thus content, he from his steed alights,
And makes fierce battle with the corse he slew,
Like a struck mastiff that in vengeance bites
The stone some passenger in anger threw.
O vain relief of anguish, to pursue
With rage the dust insensible to pain !
But meanwhile Godfrey and his circling crew
Of Paladins, against the Soldan's train
Spent not in vain their powers, struck not their blows in vain.

A thousand Turks were there from head to heel
Sheathed in fine mail, with plated shields ; their frame,
Untired by toil, was stubborn as the steel
That armed their limbs, their daring souls the same, —
Versed in all movements of the martial game :
The Soldan's ancient body-guard, they passed
With him to the Arabian wilds when came
His evil hour, and to his fortunes fast
Adhered through bright and dark, confederates to the last.


St John the Baptist, Little Maplestead, Essex

Little Maplestead ChurchHistory
The Domesday Survey does not distinguish between Great and Little Maplestead, and identifies three holdings in the two villages. Half a hide was held by Osmund from John FitzWaleran in 1086, that belonged to Grim as a manor in 1066. Ilger held half a hide from Robert Gernon, that belonged to Wulfwine in 1066, and the wife of Aubrey de Vere appropriated 5 free men with 1¼ acres here, that Tidbald held under her. In addition, and perhaps of more significance, is the manor of ‘Napstead’ in Little Maplestead, which was held by the wife of Aubrey de Vere from the Bishop of Bayeux in 1086, and by 8 free men in 1066, and was assessed at 22½ acres. It is not clear which of these holdings is relevant to the later history, which is that the village and the church were given by Juliana FitzAudelin, the daughter of Robert Dosnel and wife of William FitzAudelin, Henry II’s steward, to the Knights Hospitallers, a grant confirmed by her husband in 1186.

see also : Richard Le Utlawe - 1260 - Essex

1259 - A pitched battle was fought in Syria, between the Templars and Hospitallers. The Templars were defeated

1260 - Witness Richard le Utlawe - Essex - Grant of Rent
  William de Wateville to John de Vallibus and his heirs of land in Hempstead, Essex   witnessed by Sir Nicholas Peche, Sir Andrew de Helyun, Sir Simon Peche, Philip de Codree, John de Bosco, Richard de Kanne, Richard le Utlawe, Hugh de Sanford, Roger de Reymes, Geoffrey de Bello, Simon Clericus - 44 Henry III

1285 - Hospitaller Charter of  Ida daughter of the late Richard Utlaw of the five acres of land and half an acre of meadow, with appurtenances. - Roger [ son of Richard ] Outlaw ( of Bumpstead Helion ), Ida daughter of Richard

Some questions might be : Why are all these (important) people gathered together for this occasion of a rental agreement?

The Hospitaller Cartulary in the British Library: Michael Gervers: 9780888440501: Books



Notice Robert De Vere is mentioned - then later Ida Outlaw in 1285 in Bumstead Helion ( next door) , So the early 1210 Roger Outlaw was probably near also .. Crusading neigbors of Hospitallers and Templers

Chambers' Papers for the People, Volume 3

 The papal censure was disregarded by the Templars ; and though they professed obedience to the legate of the pope in 1219, when he headed the
expedition into Egypt, it was they who really directed the legate. In this expedition, and particularly in the siege of Damietta, the knights greatly distinguished themselves ;

but when the Emperor Frederick II. undertook the crusade in 1228, they gave him all the opposition in their power, and
wrote to the sultan of Egypt to inform him of the emperor's plans. The sultan sent the letter to Frederick, who, on his return to Europe, revenged
himself upon the order by seizing all its possessions throughout Italy and Sicily

In attacking the Templars, and defending this confiscation of their property, the emperor made it an important charge against them, that
they were friendly to the Moslems
. ' We know on good authority,' said he, ' that sultans and their trains are received with pompous alacrity
within the gates of the temple, and that the Templars suffer them to celebrate secular plays, and to perform their superstitious rites with invocation
of Mohammed.' The Templars retaliated by dispossessing the Teutonic knights of all their possessions in Syria, and entered into an alliance with
the emir of Damascus against the Hospitallers

The invasion of the Turks compelled the rival orders to unite for their common safety ; but they suffered a severe defeat near Damascus, in which the master and 300 knights
were slain. Only Acre now remained in possession of the Christians, and the Templars appear at this time to have meditated a complete retreat
from the East ; but the animosity which had been long gathering between this or der and that of the Hospitallers at length burst into a flame,
and in 1259 a pitched battle was fought between them, in which the Templars were completely routed
. From this period no event of importance in the annals of the order occurred until 1291, when Acre was taken by storm by the Moslems, and the remnant of the Templars sought refuge
in the island of Cyprus.

|  - - - - - -  - - - - - -

I found it interesting Ida Outlaw is a widow but we don't know who her husband was ... yet it was more important that she was the daughter of "Sir" Richard Outlawe ..

so here is the actual document reference to her lease ( to earn income) to the Hospitallers and another document explaning widowhood in the 1300's :

Know all men present and future know that I, Ida, had once been the daughter of Sir Richard le Outlaw of Bumpstead Helyun this in the pure widowhood, and the manner of the use of my right have given, granted and by this my present charter have confirmed to God and the Blessed Mary and to St John the Baptist and the brethren of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England; Maplestead residing, or of in the same place serving God, for the salvation of the souls of my ancestors, have five acres of land and half an acre of meadow, with the appurtenances, lying in the Bradecroft, to have and to hold of me and my heirs or my assigns, the aforesaid brothers, and their successors, freely, quietly, well and in peace, for ever paying for them annually, to me me or assigns brothers and their successors guarantee all men and all fully defend the aforesaid five and a half acre of land with its properties as previously indicated by that service free to all men and women permanently Witness Andrea Helyun William Olmestede Giovanni Olmestede Stephan, son of John Stephen Thomas Beucham soldiers Lancelyn Launcelyn John William Panymere and others Given the road iustic [iariis] Chelmereford year in the reign of king Edward

Women in late medieval London received significant portions of their husbands' estate as dower - anywhere from one-third to one-half. Laws may have limited the widows' ownership to their lifetimes, but the widows were free to collect any financial interests the property accrued during their possession
They rarely granted the property for their lifetimes, and instead used this portion of their holdings to earn income through quitclaims. After the plague, however, citizens retained larger property holdings, thereby increasing their widows' dowers. In the second half of the fourteenth century, widows alienated these additional holdings in return for financial profits. Throughout the century, however, widows generally conformed to borough customs. ...
The King was signed with the cross at London, on Ash Wednesday (4 March 1215) by William bishop of London, and with him, or after him, many of his associates, very much at his prompting, donning white crosses, like the King's, or like that of his brother or father. It was the ancient custom that the English be signed with white crosses, just as the French were signed with red

Maine Coon

"Some say the Vikings brought him to North America, centuries before Columbus sailed the ocean blue,"


The Maine Coon is a native New Englander, hailing from Maine, where he was a popular mouser, farm cat and, most likely, ship's cat, at least as far back as the early 19th century. He is a natural breed and little is known of his origins. Some say the Vikings brought him to North America, centuries before Columbus sailed the ocean blue, others that he is the descendant of longhaired cats belonging to Marie Antoinette, sent to America in advance of the doomed queen, who had hoped to escape there. Sea captains may have brought back longhaired cats that then mated with local shorthaired cats. One thing is for sure: the Maine Coon is not the result of a mating between a cat and a raccoon, even if his brown tabby coat and furry ringed tail suggest that biological impossibility. The resemblance is, however, how the cats got their name; in fact, Maine Coons that didn't have the brown tabby coat were called Maine Shags.
... they are the official state cat of Maine.
How Cats Conquered the World (and a Few Viking Ships)

A large-scale study of ancient feline DNA charts the domestication and global spread of house cats
By Ewen Callaway, Nature magazine on September 20, 2016

Sea-faring people probably kept cats to keep rodents in check, says Geigl, whose team also found cat remains with this maternal DNA lineage at a Viking site dating to between the eighth and eleventh century A.D. in northern Germany.

"There are so many interesting observations" in the study, says Pontus Skoglund, a population geneticist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts.

"I didn't even know there were Viking cats."

He was also impressed by the fact that Geigl's team was able to discern real population shifts from mitochondrial DNA, which traces only a single maternal lineage. Nonetheless, Skoglund thinks that nuclear DNA--which provides information about more of an individual's ancestors--could address lingering questions about cat domestication and spread, such as their relationship to wild cats, with which they still interbreed.

see also:


Maine Coon and Forest Cat related ? - Probably ...

The Norwegian Forest Cat comes from the native of Norway, with a history going back hundreds and maybe thousands of years. He features in many fairy tale stories and legends. One of a popular legend describes that six gigantic cats pull the Chariot of Norse goddess Freya. Where any how these cats came into existence is a long unsolved mystery.
It is very much likely that the Norwegian Forest Cats were serving on the Viking Ship as the cats of the ship, also called mousers.
Cat Ancestry - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

FAQ Answers . About Cat Ancestry

What information will the cat ancestry test provide?

Cat Ancestry is a novelty test to investigate ancestry and determine which of the 8 geographic regions your cat descends from: Western Europe, Egypt, East Mediterranean, Iran/Iraq, Arabian Sea, India, South Asia and East Asia.

Your cat's sample will be compared to the 29 reference populations from four of the regions: Western Europe, South Asia, Eastern Mediterranean and Arabian Sea. If your cat associates strongly with one of the 29 reference populations, the information is reported. In addition, the Cat Ancestry report includes the genetics of your cat's coat colors, fur length and fur type.

| - - -
Maine Coons vs. Norwegian Forest Cats

Maine Coon cats and Norwegian Forest cats look very similar, and some experts that believe that the Maine Coon is a descendant of the Norwegian Forest cats since they share so many similar traits.

They are both large breeds of cats. They both have long silky coats. They are both well known for being outgoing and friendly but there are some differences in both appearance and personality. Maine Coons are well-known for their intelligence and their ability for quickly learning new things.

Maine Coons also really enjoy the company of people and are very loyal. Norwegian Forest Cats are also very intelligent and easy to train, but they are not that interested in the loyalty part if you are not willing to interact with them.
Maine Coons - That Yankee Cat

in Ring of Seasons: Iceland - Its Culture and History, author Terry G. Lacy states that a DNA connection has been found between cats from Iceland and the cat populations in other places that have or may have experienced Norse visitation. She lists New York and Boston as being two of these areas. However, she also states that there have been no archeological findings to support this connection so far. Therefore, the theory is interesting, but so far unproven.

If remains of cats are found in areas of Norse settlement in North America or more DNA research is done to find connections between Maine Coons and Norwegian Forest Cats, I'd be happy to look into this idea further.

> I mention an older study below:
> Adelsteinson, S., and B. Blumenberg.

Possible Norse origin for two Northeastern USA cat populations. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie 100 (1983): 161-174. They consider a possible Norse/Viking origin for two northeastern U.S. cat populations.

These clearly demonstrate similarity to Scandinavian felines on the basis of genetic distance calculations reinforced by discriminant analysis. The possible biogeographic reality of such mathematical relationships is discussed in reference to genetic drift and available historical and ethnographic information. [Sorenson] Cited in Bergersen [has "Adalsteinson"], Sorenson

Fig. 2.

Neighbor-joining tree of cat breeds and populations. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using Cavalli-Sforza's chord distance. Bootstrap values above 50% are presented on relationship nodes. Asian (green), Western European (red), East African (purple), Mediterranean basin (blue), and wildcat (black) populations form strongly supported monophyletic branches. European and African wildcats are closely related, whereas short branches of most all other populations indicate close relationships of these breeds and populations. Random-bred populations are indicated in italics, breeds are in standard font. Cat photographs courtesy of Royal Canin and Richard Katris of Chanan Photography.

Viking trade in red squirrels may have spread leprosy

Red squirrels traded by Vikings could have brought leprosy to pre-medieval England, according to archaeologists.

Research has revealed that a pre-Norman skull found in Hoxne in Suffolk has a leprosy strain closely related to a type known to affect squirrels.

The strain has also been found in Medieval Scandinavian skeletons.

Cambridge University's Sarah Inskip said contact with the "highly-prized squirrel pelt and meat" traded by Vikings could have spread the disease.

Radiocarbon dating revealed the woman's skull, which is held at Diss Museum in Norfolk, dates to between 885 and 1015 AD.

It has the same strain of leprosy as that identified in skeletal remains found in Medieval Denmark and Sweden.

Dr Inskip said: "That [leprosy] may also come from squirrels is an interesting idea."

King's Lynn and Yarmouth in Norfolk were "significant ports for fur imports" from Denmark and Sweden at this time, she added.

The animals were also sometimes kept as pets.

| - - - -

1200-1250 - Deed of grant, Lynn - 1d annual rent from a certain [piece of land] 4 feet wide in Damgate held by Peter Strac - Grant by Laurence Outlaw (utlator) of Len [Lynn] to the Hospital of the Blessed Mary Magdalen of Len and to the infirm brothers there for the souls of his parents and his benefactors, the 1d to come from his purse during his lifetime

Witnesses: Robert the mayor of Len, Ralph Kelloc, Adam de Gernemut, William clerk of Gernemut, Robert the son of David, Richard de Brecha., William son of Aelld., William son of Milon, John de Geywdia, Michael de Beaw., Yvone de Lincoln, William the son of Richard, John the son of Astin and many others
Endorsed as relating to Lenne.

The Manuscripts of the Corporations of Southampton and King's Lynn ...
By Great Britain. Royal Commission on Historica


Medieval Leper Hospitals in England: An Archaeological Perspective
By SIMON ROFFEY ... the first Frenchman to rule Navarre. ...

Theobald I (French: Thibaut, Spanish: Teobaldo, often referred to as Thibaut de Navarre and Thibaut de Champagne) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), also called the Troubadour and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He initiated the Barons' Crusade, was famous as a trouvère, and was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre. Kingdom of Navarre / Nafarroa AD 840 - 1512 A pocket kingdom, Navarre was founded no later than AD 737 as a Frankish march county up alongside the Western Pyrenees. It was isolated from early contact with the Islamic invaders and was less involved with the Reconquista than other states. Initially under the domination of the Franks, it was also open to influence by the native Basque (Euskeran) peoples, and was, essentially, a Basque kingdom in pre-Spanish Spain (hence the Basque name, Nafarroa). Ongoing battles between the Almohads and the Iberian Christians would end up in North African defeat at the Battle of Los Navos de Tolosa in 1212 ... a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). ... The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread to Italy and Spain. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, and that of the trouvères in northern France. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical, musical, and poetical fiction. After the "classical" period around the turn of the 13th century and a mid-century resurgence, the art of the troubadours declined in the 14th century and around the time of the Black Death (1348) it would die out. ... The earliest troubadour, the Duke of Aquitaine, came from the high nobility. He was followed immediately by two poets of unknown origins, known only by their sobriquets, Cercamon and Marcabru, and by a member of the princely class, Jaufre Rudel. Many troubadours are described in their vidas as poor knights. It was one of the most common descriptors of status: Berenguier de Palazol, Gausbert Amiel, Guilhem Ademar, Guiraudo lo Ros, Marcabru, Peire de Maensac, Peirol, Raimon de Miraval, Rigaut de Berbezilh, and Uc de Pena. Albertet de Sestaro is described as the son of a noble jongleur, presumably a petty noble lineage. ... Cathar According to this thesis, troubadour poetry is a reflection of Cathar religious doctrine. While the theory is supported by the traditional and near-universal account of the decline of the troubadours coinciding with the suppression of Catharism during the Albigensian Crusade (first half of the 13th century), support for it has come in waves. The explicitly Catholic meaning of many early troubadour works also works against the theory.

Troubadour Poetry (A selection of sixty Provençal poems, translated from the Occitan) ,.... Guillaume de Poitiers (1071-1127) William or Guillem IX, called The Troubador, was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou, as William VII, between 1086, when he was aged only fifteen, and his death. Refusing to take part in the first crusade of 1098, he was one of the leaders of the minor Crusade of 1101 which was a military failure. He was the ‘first’ troubadour, that is, the first recorded vernacular lyric poet, in the Occitan language. Threatened with excommunication several times for his dissolute life and challenges to Church authority, he was later reconciled. He married his ‘step-daughter’ Anor, to his son, later Guilhem X, and in turn their daughter Alianor (Eleanor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitou, became Queen of France, and by her second marriage to Henry, Duke of Normandy, later Henry II, became Queen of England also. She was the mother of the Young King Henry, Richard Coeur de Lion, Geoffrey of Brittany and John Lackland.

Ab la dolchor del temps novel

Out of the sweetness of the spring,
The branches leaf, the small birds sing,
Each one chanting in its own speech,
Forming the verse of its new song,
Then is it good a man should reach
For that for which he most does long.

From finest sweetest place I see
No messenger, no word for me,
So my heart can’t laugh or rest,
And I don’t dare try my hand,
Until I know, and can attest,
That all things are as I demand.

This love of ours it seems to be
Like a twig on a hawthorn tree
That on the tree trembles there
All night, in rain and frost it grieves,
Till morning, when the rays appear
Among the branches and the leaves.

So the memory of that dawn to me
When we ended our hostility,
And a most precious gift she gave,
Her loving friendship and her ring:
Let me live long enough, I pray,
Beneath her cloak my hand to bring.

I’ve no fear that tongues too free
Might part me from Sweet Company,
I know with words how they can stray
In gossip, yet that’s a fact of life:
No matter if others boast of love,
We have the loaf, we have the knife!

Normans in Catalonia
Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55
Article · March 1981 with 24 Reads


A Norman adventurer, Robert Burdet, while participating in the Reconquista, established a short-lived crusader principality at Tarragona.

This Norman gained fame after 1114, first serving Alfonso I el Batallador (‘The Warrior’) of Aragón in the wars against the Banu Hūd of Zaragoza; thereafter he was contracted by Archbishop Oleguer Bonestruga of Tarragona, the primate of northeastern Spain after 1118 and a papal legate after 1123, to assume in 1129 the secular lordship of Tarragona which had been constituted by the comital house of Barcelona as a papal fief and ecclesiastical principality. After this prelate's death in 1137, the Norman held this frontier and attempted to found an autonomous crusader state, but in 1146 the new archbishop, Bernard Tort, began to re-impose ecclesiastical control over Tarragona.

At the same time, the house of Barcelona inherited the royal title from Aragón, thus forming the crown of Aragón by merging the former kingdom with the Catalan counties and reviving the crusade against Muslim Lérida and Tortosa which fell in 1148 and 1149.

The archbishop and count moved against the Normans to integrate their principality into the new Aragó-Catalan federation. Prince Robert lost much of his power before his death in 1155, and his heirs were reduced to vassalage to Barcelona and subservience to their ecclesiastical lord, the archbishop of Tarragona. Civil war broke out after 1155 and the expulsion of the Normans by 1177 brought their principality to an end.

Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55. Available from: [accessed Nov 27 2017].

Robert d'Aguiló (c. 1100 – c. 1159), also known as Robert Bordet, was a Norman knight who moved from Normandy to Catalonia in the early 12th century. He was a native of Cullei (modern Rabodanges in Orne, France), as reported by Orderic Vitalis, and his name d'Aguiló is a catalanized form of "d'Aculley" or "de Culley" that he adopted after marrying the daughter of a Catalan noble.

In 1124 Robert became governor of the newly conquered territory of Tudela and held that post for the next two years. Three years after his term office, on 14 March 1129, he was ceded secular authority in the district of Tarragona by Olegarius, Bishop of Barcelona, with the title of "Prince of Tarragona" (princeps Tarraconensis), effectively the archiepiscopate's vidame or defensor (defender, advocate).[1][2] His position in Tarragona he maintained until 1153.

On 24 January 1150 Robert granted the lordship of Riudoms to Arnau de Palomar. In 1149 Robert granted a charter to the city of Tarragona, and appointed one Guillem (William) as lord of the city, but Guillem was forced to resign in 1157. This occurred after he attempted to transfer his rights in the city to the Count of Barcelona but Robert rejected the agreement. On 29 April 1157 the lordship of Reus was granted by Robert to the Church of Tarragona but it was transferred to Bertran de Castellet less than two months later on 3 June. Two years later (1159) an ephemeral agreement between the count, the bishop, and Robert was reached.

Robert was married to Agnes Sibylla (died 1170), and had four sons by her: Guillem (William, died 1168), Robert, Ricard (Richard), and Berenguer (Berengar, who in conjunction with Robert, assassinated Bishop Hug de Cervelló in 1171).

Ramon Berenguer IV (Catalan pronunciation: [rəˈmom bəɾəŋˈɡe]; c. 1114[1] – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.

The Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña said he was, "[a] man of particularly great nobility, prudence, and probity, of lively temperament, high counsel, great bravery, and steady intellect, who displayed great temperance in all his actions. He was handsome in appearance, with a large body and very well-proportioned limbs."

Crusades and wars

In the middle years of his rule, Ramon Berenguer turned his attention to campaigns against the Moors. In October 1147, as part of the Second Crusade, he helped Castile to conquer Almería. He then invaded the lands of the Almoravid taifa kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia. In December 1148, he captured Tortosa after a five-month siege with the help of Southern French, Anglo-Norman and Genoese crusaders.[3] (When Moors later tried to recapture Tortosa, the women put up such a spirited defense that Berenger created for them the Order of the Hatchet.) The next year, Fraga, Lleida and Mequinenza in the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers fell to his army. The reconquista of modern Catalonia was completed.

Ramon Berenguer also campaigned in Provence, helping his brother Berenguer Ramon and his infant nephew Ramon Berenguer II against the Counts of Toulouse. During the minority of Ramon Berenguer II, the Count of Barcelona also acted as the regent of Provence (between 1144 and 1157). In 1151, Ramon signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia as an attempt to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Also in 1151, Ramon Berenguer founded and endowed the royal monastery of Poblet. In 1154, he accepted the regency of Gaston V of Béarn in return for the Bearnese nobles rendering him homage at Canfranc, thus uniting that small principality with the growing Aragonese empire.

The Siege of Tortosa (1 July – 30 December 1148) was a military action of the Second Crusade (1147–49) in Spain. A multinational force under the command of Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona besieged the city of Tortosa (Arabic Ṭurṭūs̲h̲a), then a part of the Almoravid Emirate, for seven months before the garrison surrendered.
Participants in the siege of Tortosa were even called "pilgrims" (peregrini) like those en route to the Holy Land.
The conquest of Tortosa was a major event in the Reconquista of the Ebro Valley. Raymond Berengar IV followed it up with the conquest of Lleida on his own, without Genoese assistance or papal approval, in 1149.
Besides the army of Aragonese, Catalans and Occitans recruited from the three territories under Raymond Berengar's rule and the Genoese army recruited by him in 1146, the army that besieged Tortosa was joined by crusaders from northern Europe, namely Englishmen, Flemings and Normans.[5] It is probable that some or all of the English, Flemish and Norman crusaders were veterans of the Lisbon campaign, although another portion of that Anglo-Flemish army had gone on to the Holy Land and was at that time participating in the Siege of Damascus. The only source to explicitly link the English at Tortosa with those at Lisbon is the Royal Chronicle of Cologne, which says that afterwards they continued on to the Holy Land

The Order of the Hatchet (Sp. Orden del Hacha) is an female honorific order supposedly founded in 1149, bestowed upon the women of the town of Tortosa, in Catalonia (Spain).

This order was founded during the Reconquista to honor women combatants in the site of Tortosa against Muslims. During that year, amid heavy fighting between the two fronts, Muslims besieged Tortosa after a withdrawal of Berenguer. In the absence of men to defend the city, women joined the fight, dressing as men[1] and attacking with hatchets and anything else they could lay their hands on. They successfully repelled the attackers. Their participation was essential to the defense of Tortosa. In appreciation of these facts, Count Ramon Berenguer instituted the order of the hatchet for women who participated in that defense, which brought them privileges and tax exemptions, among other things.

| - - - -
Participation in the Iberian Reconquista c.1018 - c.1248 By Lucas Villegas-Aristizábal BA (Hons), MA pdf ... Chapter IV, addresses the large contribution of the Anglo-Normans as part of the Second Crusade and their motivations and the impact of their arrival on the Iberian realms ... Harvey of Glanville was the leader of the East Anglian contingent in the Lisbon expedition. From the lack of documentary sources about his life and his relationship with the other Glanvilles in East Anglia, we might assume that whilst he was perhaps important and influential among the small landowners of his region he was not a powerful lord who could pay a full retinue of armoured knights to go with him to Iberia. However, there are a few documents which predate his departure for Spain. Two of these show him as a witness to Stephen's charters, which suggest that at least for a time he was a loyal subject to the king in the years before the crusade.427 Perhaps his leadership, just as it is implied in De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, was achieved as part of a process of election based perhaps on his personal prestige among his peers. ... Details of other Englishmen in the Iberian campaigns of the Second Crusade have also survived in documents relating to the granting of lands made after the conquest of Tortosa.432 The most notable of them, because of the abundance of documentary sources about them, are ‘Gilbert’, ‘Osbert’, and ‘Jordan’.’433 Unfortunately because of the cryptic form of the names of these Englishmen who appear mostly with the surname of Anglici or Angles, it is hard to identify exactly their place of origin in England. However, there are two groups of English in Tortosa whose surnames Savigne and Caron seem to link them directly with East Anglia, which implies that some other participants were also from this area.434 It is likely that those involved on the Lisbon campaign and the Tortosa campaign were members of the same expedition, since there is no mention of the formation of a crusading expedition in England except for those who went to Lisbon. Lisbon Cathedral - In the year 1147, the city was reconquered by an army composed of Portuguese soldiers led by King Afonso Henriques and North European crusaders taking part on the Second Crusade (see Siege of Lisbon). An English crusader named Gilbert of Hastings was placed as bishop, and a new cathedral was built on the site of the main mosque of Lisbon Gilbert of Hastings - died 1166) was an English monk in the Christian army of the Second Crusade that fought in the siege of Lisbon. After the victory, he was chosen to be Bishop of Lisbon Robert d'Aguiló - (c. 1100 – c. 1159), also known as Robert Bordet, was a Norman adventurer who moved from Normandy to Catalonia in the early 12th century. He was a native of Cullei (modern Rabodanges in Orne, France), as reported by Orderic Vitalis, and his name d'Aguiló is a catalanized form of "d'Aculley" or "de Culley" that he adopted after marrying the daughter of a Catalan noble. Tortosa - After more than 400 years of Muslim rule, the city was conquered by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1148, as part of the Second Crusade. Because of the crusading appeal made by Pope Eugene III and his representative Nicholas Brakespear (the future Pope Hadrian IV), the siege received the aid of crusaders from multiple nationalities (Genovese, Anglo-Normans, Normans, Southern-French, Germans, Flemish and Dutch), who were on their way to the Holy Land. The siege of Tortosa was narrated by the Genovese chronicler and diplomat Caffaro. After its conquest, the city and its territory were divided among the victors, with multiple lands being granted to foreign crusaders and to the military and religious orders
Siege of Lisbon - from July 1 to October 25, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade—it was "the only success of the universal operation undertaken by the pilgrim army," The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146.

In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León and Castile to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on June 16, 1147. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal. The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to the crusaders the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The siege began on July 1. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender on October 24, primarily because of hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Lisbon eventually became capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.

On May 19, 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, and Scottish crusaders, and some from Cologne,[6] who collectively considered themselves "Franks".[7] No prince or king led this part of the crusade, England at the time being in the midst of The Anarchy. The fleet was commanded by Henry Glanville, Constable of Suffolk.[8][9] Other crusader captains included Arnold III of Aerschot, Christian of Ghistelles, Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle ... Some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land.[8] However, most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, thus boosting the number of Christian supporters in Iberia. Gilbert of Hastings was elected bishop. This is seen[by whom?] as the beginning of the historic relationship between England and Portugal which would later form the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. In spite of the contractual nature of the city's surrender, a legend arose that the brave Portuguese warrior and nobleman, Martim Moniz, sacrificed himself in order to keep the city doors open to the conquering Christian armies

Danes - Danemark -  Danube - People of the sea - Ship builders - Pagan Vikings?
Jacob Blesses his Sons

1 And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.
13 Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.
16 Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.
17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.
18 I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.
As part of the Kingdom of Israel, the territory of Zebulun was conquered by the Assyrians, and the tribe exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.

Israeli Knesset member Ayoob Kara speculated that the Druze are descended from one of the Lost Tribes of Israel, probably Zevulun
. Kara stated that the Druze share many of the same beliefs as Jews, and that he has genetic evidence to prove that the Druze were descended from Jews.[5]
The Tribe of Dan (Hebrew: דָּן‎), meaning, "Judge," was one of the tribes of Israel, according to the Torah. They were allocated a coastal portion of land when the people of Israel entered the Promised Land, later moving northwards.

As part of the Kingdom of Israel, the territory of Dan was conquered by the Assyrians, and exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.
Their primary trade characteristic was seafaring, unusual for the Israelite tribes.[20] In the Song of Deborah the tribe is said to have stayed on their ships with their belongings.
Modern artists use the "scales of justice" to represent the Tribe of Dan due to Genesis 49:16 referencing Dan "shall achieve justice for his kindred". More traditional artists use a snake to represent Dan, based upon Genesis 49:17, "Let Dan be a serpent by the roadside, a horned viper by the path, That bites the horse's heel, so that the rider tumbles backward."
The Book of Revelation (7:4–8), mentions that people from the twelve tribes of Israel will be sealed. The selection of the twelve tribes does not include the names of Ephraim and Dan, although their names were used for the twelve tribes that settled in the Promised Land. It has been suggested that this could be because of their pagan practices
The Poem of the Cid By Cid
At any rate we are able to fix with some degree of certainty the limits of the period within which the poem must have been composed. It cannot have been written much, if at all, earlier than 1150, or later than 1250. Ferdinand Wolf of Vienna, a scholar to whom Spanish literature is more indebted than to any, except, perhaps, Gayangos and Ticknor, believes the period of its composition to have been between 1140 and 1160, and, basing his conjecture on the line already quoted, suggests that it may have been composed as a kind of epithalamium on the occasion of the marriage of the above-mentioned Blanca with the Infante Sancho in 1151. Sanchez, its first editor, holds the date to be 1150, 'or a little later.'
The Cid died in 1099, consequently, if Wolf, Huber, and Sanchez are right, the hero and his achievements must have been something much more vivid than mere matters of report or tradition to the author of the poem.
The only issue of the marriage of the Cid's daughter Maria with Raymond Berenger III. was a daughter who died childless. By the marriage of Blanca, daughter of Alphonso VIII., to Louis VIII. of France, the blood of the Cid passed into the French line. The Bourbons inherited it by two channels, through Blanca the mother of St. Louis, and through Joanna, heiress of Navarre and mother of Henri IV. ; and thus the line of the Cid is continued on the Spanish throne in the person of Alphonso XII. It passed into the House of Hapsburg through Ferdinand, the brother of Charles V., and it was brought into our own Royal Family by Eleanor of Castile, in whose greatgrandson, the Black Prince, it showed itself again on Spanish soil at Najera, a battle fought and won thoroughly in the style of the Cid.


1239-1240 Barons Crusade - Cornwall

The Barons' Crusade, also called the Crusade of 1239, was in territorial terms the most successful crusade since the First. Called by Pope Gregory IX, the Barons' Crusade broadly spanned from 1234-1241 and embodied the highest point of papal endeavor "to make crusading a universal Christian undertaking."[

This crusade to the Holy Land is sometimes discussed as two separate crusades: that of King Theobald I of Navarre, which began in 1239; and, the separate host of crusaders under the leadership of Richard of Cornwall, which arrived after Theobald departed in 1240. Additionally, the Barons' Crusade is often described in tandem with Baldwin of Courtenay's concurrent trip to Constantinople and capture of Tzurulum with a separate, smaller force of crusaders


Theobald of Champagne's host[edit]

Theobald of Champagne, the king of Navarre, gathered an impressive list of European nobles at Lyon, including: Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy; Amaury VI of Montfort; Robert de Courtenay the Grand Butler of France (not to be confused with Robert I, Latin Emperor, also from Courtenay); and Peter I, Duke of Brittany. They were accompanied by a number of counts of secondary rank, including: Guigues IV of Forez, Henry II, Count of Bar, Louis of Sancerre, Jehan de Braine the Count of Mâcon, William of Joigny, and Henry of Grandpré.[9] Theobald's main force numbered some 1,500 knights, including a few hundred from Navarre.[10] They departed France in August 1239, with most sailing from Marseilles and a smaller number departing from Frederick II's ports in southern Italy. Theobald reached Acre on 1 September; he was soon joined by those crusaders who were scattered by a Mediterranean storm in transit. There they met by a council of local Christian potentates, most prominently: Walter of Brienne, Odo of Montbéliard, Balian of Beirut, John of Arsuf, and Balian of Sidon.[11] Theobald was also joined by some crusaders from Cyprus

On 10 June 1240 Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall left England with a smaller host of crusaders. This group consisted of roughly a dozen English barons and several hundred knights, including William II Longespée. They made their way to Marseilles in mid-September, and landed at Acre during the autumn passage on 8 October. Simon de Montfort, younger brother of the captured Amaury, was also part of this group but seems to have traveled separately.[21] He and his wife Eleanor went to Brindisi through Apulia and Lombardy all the way to Acre. Eleanor accompanied her husband only to Brindisi. Following that, William of Forz organized the third successful expedition to Jerusalem. In the end, the response of English barons to Gregory's call revealed a lack of indication of a common Christian identity

Scythian Gold
Ancient, Icy Tomb of Scythian Prince, Oldest of Its Kind, Expected to Hold Hidden Treasures
By Kastalia Medrano On 1/12/18 at 10:02 AM

Archaeologists working in Siberia have discovered an undisturbed ancient kurgan—a tomb of a Scythian prince. The tomb appears to be both the oldest and largest of its kind ever recorded in southern Siberia, according to a press release from the Swiss National Science Foundation.
The ancient Scythians were a nomadic people who date back to the ninth century B.C. Caspari,
Roman Beniaminson/Art Resource NY)

The solid gold Tolstaya Mogila pectoral was uncovered at a Scythian burial site about 300 miles from Sengileevskoe-2. Much of its workmanship and imagery, which illustrates daily life, nature, and mythology, resembles the decoration of the Sengileevskoe-2 vessels, suggesting that they may have been created by the same goldsmiths.

The Scythians were R1a :
In artworks, the Scythians are portrayed exhibiting European traits.[117] In Histories, the 5th-century Greek historian Herodotus describes the Budini of Scythia as red-haired and grey-eyed
Herodotus describes the Budini people, east of the Ister (Danube) River, thusly: [4.108] The Budini are a large and powerful nation: They all have deep blue eyes, and bright red hair.
Ancient Y-DNA data was finally provided by Keyser et al in 2009. They studied the haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area in Siberia dated from between the middle of the 2nd millennium BC and the 4th century AD (Scythian and Sarmatian timeframe).
Nearly all subjects belong to haplogroup R-M17
... populations known variously as Scythians, Andronovians, etc. were blue- (or green-) eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people who might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilisation. Moreover, this study found that they were genetically more closely related to modern populations of eastern Europe than those of central and southern Asia.[134] The ubiquity and utter dominance of R1a Y-DNA lineage contrasts markedly with the diversity seen in the mtDNA profiles.
The Scythians also feature in some national origin-legends of the Celts. In the second paragraph of the 1320 Declaration of Arbroath, the élite of Scotland claim Scythia as a former homeland of the Scots.
... other Irish folklore, the Irish originated in Scythia and were descendants of Fénius Farsaid, a Scythian prince who created the Ogham alphabet and who was one of the principal architects of the Gaelic language.
Based on such accounts of Scythian founders of certain Germanic as well as Celtic tribes, British historiography in the British Empire period such as Sharon Turner in his History of the Anglo-Saxons, made them the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons.
The idea was taken up in the British Israelism of John Wilson, who adopted and promoted the idea that the "European Race, in particular the Anglo-Saxons, were descended from certain Scythian tribes, and these Scythian tribes (as many had previously stated from the Middle Ages onward) were in turn descended from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel


Spectacular new discoveries from the Caucasus set the stage for a dramatic hilltop ritual
By ANDREW CURRY Monday, June 13, 2016

 One of two 2,400-year-old gold vessels found under a mound at the site of Sengileevskoe-2 in southern Russia depicts griffins attacking a stag.

... In fact, some scholars think the site may have been the location of an intense ritual and subsequent burial rite performed by some of the ancient world’s most fearsome warriors.

From about 900 to 100 B.C., nomadic tribes dominated the steppes and grasslands of Eurasia, from what is today western China all the way east to the Danube. All across this vast expanse, archaeological evidence shows that people shared core cultural practices. “They were all nomads, they were heavily socially stratified, they had monumental burial structures and rich grave goods,” says Hermann Parzinger, head of Berlin’s Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation and former head of the German Archaeological Institute. Today, archaeologists refer to the members of this interconnected world as Scythians, a name used by the Greek historian Herodotus


Igor Kozhevnikov/Courtesy Andrey Beliniski) The second, bowl-shaped, Sengileevskoe-2 vessel depicts violent instances of combat, including one showing an old man stabbing a younger warrior in the neck. In this world, the trees thrive.

The solid gold Tolstaya Mogila pectoral was uncovered at a Scythian burial site about 300 miles from Sengileevskoe-2. Much of its workmanship and imagery, which illustrates daily life, nature, and mythology, resembles the decoration of the Sengileevskoe-2 vessels, suggesting that they may have been created by the same goldsmiths.
28 August, 2015 - 04:10
Robin Whitlock
Archaeologists unearth remains of Scythian warrior in golden cloak and his horse ...
The tombs occupant is thought to have been a Scythian king. ...
The Scythians were nomads whose kingdom stretched from Iran to China and extending westwards into what is now Eastern Europe. ...
The Royal Scyths eventually intermarried with the Greeks and was eventually destroyed in the 2 nd century BC. ...

The Scythians were also known for their drug-fuelled rituals , also mentioned by Herodotus. In the summer of 2013 archaeologists discovered gold bucket-sized vessels in a kurgan which contained traces of a black residue. When this was analysed it was found to be cannabis and opium. The opium was probably drunk while the cannabis burnt nearby, releasing its fumes into the air.

The discovery follows that of another Scythian earlier this month, on this occasion involving the last resting place of a ‘warrior woman’ . Her tomb contained over 100 arrowheads, a horse harness, a collection of knives and a sword. In the Scythian warrior societies, women fought alongside the men, thereby giving rise to legends about the Amazons.

When I started the y-dna research I thought I might find connections to other Norman or Angle familys  --- still looking ...

Chromosome Signature of Polygyny in Norman England

Michael R. Maglio

A thirty seven marker short tandem repeat (STR) genetic analysis of Y chromosomes reveals an unnoted modal haplotype showing a significant association with surnames claimed to have descended from the Norman dynasties and allied with William, Duke of Normandy, During his conquest of England. This suggests that such phylogenetic prevalence is a biological record, supports the reliability of early genealogies and illustrates the link between power and polygyny in European society.


Haplogroup I1, while showing relationships across eight surnames, did not form a coherent median-joining cluster (fig. 1).
The time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) on the unique haplotypes within this group (n = 29) is estimated to be 1,250
years ago, predating Rollo.

To determine a haplotype, a survey of an extended
Norman population of allied surnames was completed
(Graf 2010, Sykes 2000) . Surname selection was based on William’s companions during the Battle of Hastings, many who were his kinsmen
Norman allies who were rewarded with English land and surnames that were the result of polygyny.
| - - - - - - - - -

Allan Scott
January 20 @ 12:51pm
I Stumbled across the same info some time ago and i have been wondering about Non Paternal Events and with my Scott Line Descending from William Balliol le Scot i have Guy Balliol listed as Most Distant Ancestor, i am in the Montgomery YDNA Group with some R1b matches over there Rainald Balliol Married Ameria de Montgomery Roger de Montgomery's Niece. Roger de Montgomery and Guy Balliol both had Mabel de Alencon for a wife and both men died same date i also wonder if Guy was a Non Anglized name and he changed it to Roger, This is my Current Brick Wall. Then when i think about King Henry I i have Henry YDNA Matches and Kane,Cain and Variants as well for matches. My Biggest Problem is when i start studying STR'S and SNP's my Eyelids get heavy then im ready for a Nap LOL another Possibility for my Common ancestor with the Montgomery's is Gomer son of Japhet Gomer being Noah's Grand Son and My Irish Matches with the Naill of Nine Hostages bage descending from Magog one of Japhet's other Son's

| - - - - -

The Normans went about marrying the widows of Hastings

The Anglo-Saxon Heiress and The Norman Conquest Anglo-Saxon women played an important role in the years following The Conquest by providing the opportunity for intermarriage into the landowning class of Saxon society.

 This intermarriage gave legitimacy that cloaks the conquerors with respectability. Oderic Vitalis writing in the early 1130s speaks of rich English magnates who were Normans already settled in England before 1066 and also those who were Normans from mixed parentage and raised in England. Normans and French men who settled in England before 1066 were regarded as Anglici suggesting that to an extent integration had begun before Conquest.
An obvious way to secure land was to marry an heiress. The Breton Geoffery de la Guerche apparently acquired the lands of Leofine, Harold's brother who died at Hastings through marriage with Leofwine's daughter Aelfgifu.

Sometimes the enforced marriage policy was not welcome and the ladies took refuge in nunneries 'not for love of religious life but from fear of the French', according to Oderic Vitalis.

William also had been concerned to restore land to the English nobility who accepted Norman rule. Just after Hastings penances due from William's men for destruction were lessened if they married into the enemy. And this penance for Norman knights could be costly.

| - - - - -

This was a time of the defeated . High born Anglo-Saxon widows with powerful connections were given their due ... Others, Normans would show up run off the remaining sons and say all this is mine now ... Lets make it legal ...

"Sometimes the enforced marriage policy was not welcome and the ladies took refuge in nunneries 'not for love of religious life but from fear of the French', according to Oderic Vitalis."

see also:


Traditional medieval histories have tended to downplay the role of noble women in early medieval England. However, increasingly popular gender studies in the last twenty years have prompted a renewed interest by scholars eager to make up for lost time and assign women a more significant role.
Historians now conclude that, to the contrary, Anglo-Saxon noble women were relatively independent through their land-holding rights while, by contrast, later Anglo-Norman noble women lost some independence when land ownership became closely associated with the new military-based society that followed the Norman Conquest in 1066.

| - - - - - -

Lets see ... I have a old wife in Normandy and now I have a new "wife" in Kent ... and another reason these men had multiple nom de plume's It also seems to be clash of cultures between older Viking / warlord pagan culture and the new Christian orthodox one

Bigamy and Christian Identity in Late Medieval Champagne Sara McDougall

McDougall also provides us with some demographic information about people who committed bigamy. They were usually mature or older persons who had spent some years in their previous marriage.

The men tended to remarry in a different locale than where they had resided with their first spouse.

Both men and women claimed that they were widowers and widows respectively, either out of genuine belief or in order to dissemble about their true status. Concerning why people would risk punishment to remarry, McDougall covers the usual litany of explanations (e.g. economic stability, seeking a more fulfilling relationship, to leave a spouse who committed adultery, etc.) (pp. 101–2). But she also helpfully adds to it. She notes that while having children per se was not a motivating factor as far as the records indicate, the guarantee of legitimacy to any child born of a bigamous union may well have been (p. 105). Perhaps even more importantly, through their partially fabricated tales along with publically solemnizing their new marriages, these bigamists, according to McDougall, were seeking a ‘Christian monogamous marriage’ (p. 100).


In the medieval period, multiple wives were often obtained through kidnapping. It is with this in view that we must interpret the following laws: The Frankish Laws of 818–9 strictly forbade kidnapping of women.[33] The XXVII. law issued by King Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1030) declares that the kidnapper must return the woman to her parents even if he has had sexual intercourse with her, and must pay a penalty to the parents. According to the Hungarian law, the kidnapped girl was then free to marry whomever.[33]

---- >>> Back to Outlawe Research Journal - Page 13